Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Hosea 13:2

Context
NET ©

Even now they persist in sin! 1  They make metal images for themselves, idols that they skillfully fashion 2  from their own silver; all of them are nothing but the work of craftsmen! There is a saying about them: 3  “Those who sacrifice 4  to the calf idol are calf kissers!” 5 

NIV ©

Now they sin more and more; they make idols for themselves from their silver, cleverly fashioned images, all of them the work of craftsmen. It is said of these people, "They offer human sacrifice and kiss the calf-idols."

NASB ©

And now they sin more and more, And make for themselves molten images, Idols skillfully made from their silver, All of them the work of craftsmen. They say of them, "Let the men who sacrifice kiss the calves!"

NLT ©

Now they keep on sinning by making silver idols to worship––images shaped skillfully with human hands. "Sacrifice to these," they cry, "and kiss the calf idols!"

MSG ©

And now they're back in the sin business again, manufacturing god-images they can use, Religion customized to taste. Professionals see to it: Anything you want in a god you can get. Can you believe it? They sacrifice live babies to these dead gods--kill living babies and kiss golden calves!

BBE ©

And now their sins are increased; they have made themselves a metal image, false gods from their silver, after their designs, all of them the work of the metal-workers; they say of them, Let them give offerings, let men give kisses to the oxen.

NRSV ©

And now they keep on sinning and make a cast image for themselves, idols of silver made according to their understanding, all of them the work of artisans. "Sacrifice to these," they say. People are kissing calves!

NKJV ©

Now they sin more and more, And have made for themselves molded images, Idols of their silver, according to their skill; All of it is the work of craftsmen. They say of them, "Let the men who sacrifice kiss the calves!"


KJV
And now they sin
<02398> (8800)
more and more
<03254> (8686)_,
and have made
<06213> (8799)
them molten images
<04541>
of their silver
<03701>_,
[and] idols
<06091>
according to their own understanding
<08394>_,
all of it the work
<04639>
of the craftsmen
<02796>_:
they say
<0559> (8802)
of them, Let the men
<0120>
that sacrifice
<02076> (8802)
kiss
<05401> (8799)
the calves
<05695>_.
{they sin...: Heb. they add to sin} {the men...: or, the sacrificers of men}
NASB ©
And now
<06258>
they sin
<02398>
more
<03254>
and more
<03254>
, And make
<06213>
for themselves molten
<04541>
images
<04541>
, Idols
<06091>
skillfully
<08394>
made from their silver
<03701>
, All
<03605>
of them the work
<04639>
of craftsmen
<02796>
. They say
<0559>
of them, "Let the men
<0120>
who sacrifice
<02076>
kiss
<05401>
the calves
<05695>
!"
HEBREW
Nwqsy
<05401>
Mylge
<05695>
Mda
<0120>
yxbz
<02076>
Myrma
<0559>
Mh
<01992>
Mhl
<0>
hlk
<03605>
Mysrx
<02796>
hvem
<04639>
Mybue
<06091>
Mnwbtk
<08394>
Mpokm
<03701>
hkom
<04541>
Mhl
<0>
wveyw
<06213>
ajxl
<02398>
wpowy
<03254>
htew (13:2)
<06258>
LXXM
kai
<2532
CONJ
proseyeto
<4369
V-AMI-3S
tou
<3588
T-GSN
amartanein
<264
V-PAN
eti
<2089
ADV
kai
<2532
CONJ
epoihsan
<4160
V-AAI-3P
eautoiv
<1438
D-DPM
cwneuma {N-ASN} ek
<1537
PREP
tou
<3588
T-GSN
arguriou
<694
N-GSN
autwn
<846
D-GPM
kat
<2596
PREP
eikona
<1504
N-ASF
eidwlwn
<1497
N-GPN
erga
<2041
N-APN
tektonwn
<5045
N-GPM
suntetelesmena
<4931
V-RPPAP
autoiv
<846
D-DPM
autoi
<846
D-NPM
legousin
<3004
V-PAI-3P
yusate
<2380
V-AAD-2P
anyrwpouv
<444
N-APM
moscoi
<3448
N-NPM
gar
<1063
PRT
ekleloipasin
<1587
V-RAI-3P
NET © [draft] ITL
Even now
<06258>
they persist in sin
<02398>
! They make
<06213>
metal images
<04541>
for themselves, idols
<06091>
that they skillfully
<08394>
fashion from their own silver
<03701>
; all
<03605>
of them are nothing but the work
<04639>
of craftsmen
<02796>
! There is a saying
<0559>
about them
<01992>
: “Those who sacrifice
<0120>
to the calf
<05695>
idol are calf kissers
<05401>
!”
NET ©

Even now they persist in sin! 1  They make metal images for themselves, idols that they skillfully fashion 2  from their own silver; all of them are nothing but the work of craftsmen! There is a saying about them: 3  “Those who sacrifice 4  to the calf idol are calf kissers!” 5 

NET © Notes

tn The phrase יוֹסִפוּ לַחֲטֹא (yosifu lakhato’, “they add to sin”) is an idiom meaning either (1) “they sin more and more” or (2) “they continue to sin” (see BDB 415 s.v. יָסַף 2.a; HALOT 418 s.v. יסף 3.b). The English versions are divided: (1) “they sin more and more” (KJV, RSV, NASB, NIV) and (2) “they go on sinning” (NJPS), “they continue to sin” (NAB), “they (+ still TEV, NCV) keep on sinning” (NRSV, NLT).

tn The term כִּתְבוּנָם (kitvunam, “according to their skill”; preposition כְּ + feminine singular noun תְּבוּנָה, tÿvunah + 3rd person masculine plural suffix) is an abbreviated form of כִּתְבוּנָתָם (kitvunatam; GKC 255-56 §91.e). תְּבוּנָה means “understanding, faculty, skill” (BDB 108 s.v. תְּבוּנָה 1). It refers to a builder skillfully constructing a house (Prov 24:3), God skillfully fashioning creation (Ps 136:5; Prov 3:19), and a craftsman skillfully making an idol (Hos 13:2).

tn Heb “They say about them.” Another possible rendering for the line is: “It is said of them – those men who sacrifice, ‘They kiss calves!’” The phrase זֹבְחֵי אָדָם (zovkheadam, “those men who sacrifice”) functions either (1) as the subject of the verb יִשָּׁקוּן (yishaqun, “they kiss”) in the quotation in the direct discourse: “It is said of them, ‘Those men who sacrifice kiss calves!’” or (2) in apposition to the indirect object 3rd person masculine plural suffix לָהֶם (lahem, “about them”): “It is said of them, that is, those men who sacrifice….”

tn Heb “Those among men who offer sacrifices.” The genitive construct זֹבְחֵי אָדָם (zovkheadam, “the sacrificers of men”) is misunderstood by NIV as an objective genitive phrase: “they offer human sacrifice.” Such a classification is questionable: (1) Nowhere else in the book does Hosea accuse Israel of human sacrifice, and (2) archaeological evidence does not provide any evidence of human sacrifice in the Northern Kingdom during Iron Age I (1200-722 b.c.). This phrase should be classified as a genitive of species: the genitive represents the whole class or kind of a species (men) and the construct represents a part of the whole or subspecies within the whole (those who sacrifice): “those among men who offer sacrifice” (those who offer sacrifices). The expression “a fool of men” in Prov 15:20 provides a similar example: the genitive represents the whole class/species (men) and the construct represents a part of the whole/subspecies (a fool): “a foolish man.” This is the tactic adopted by most English versions: “the men that sacrifice” (KJV), “the men who sacrifice” (NASB), “they appoint men to sacrifice [to them]” (NJPS).

tn Heb “They kiss calves!” The verb יִשָּׁקוּן (yishaqun) may be parsed as an imperfect (“they kiss [calves]”) or jussive (“let them kiss [calves]!”). Paragogic nun endings (ן + יִשָּׁקוּ) are attached to imperfects to connote rhetorical emphasis. It is used either (1) to mark out an action that is contrary to normal practice and deviates from normal expectations (those who worship the calf idol are, in effect, kissing calves!), or (2) to express strong emotion (in this case disgust) at the action of the calf idolaters (they kiss calves!). For function of paragogic nun, see IBHS 516-17 §31.7.1.



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