Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Hosea 13:1

Context
NET ©

When Ephraim 1  spoke, 2  there was terror; 3  he was exalted 4  in Israel, but he became guilty by worshiping Baal and died.

NIV ©

When Ephraim spoke, men trembled; he was exalted in Israel. But he became guilty of Baal worship and died.

NASB ©

When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling. He exalted himself in Israel, But through Baal he did wrong and died.

NLT ©

In the past when the tribe of Ephraim spoke, the people shook with fear because the other Israelite tribes looked up to them. But the people of Ephraim sinned by worshiping Baal and thus sealed their destruction.

MSG ©

God once let loose against Ephraim a terrifying sentence against Israel: Caught and convicted in the lewd sex-worship of Baal--they died!

BBE ©

When the words of my law came from Ephraim, he was lifted up in Israel; but when he did evil through the Baal, death overtook him.

NRSV ©

When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling; he was exalted in Israel; but he incurred guilt through Baal and died.

NKJV ©

When Ephraim spoke, trembling, He exalted himself in Israel; But when he offended through Baal worship , he died.


KJV
When Ephraim
<0669>
spake
<01696> (8763)
trembling
<07578>_,
he exalted
<05375> (8804)
himself in Israel
<03478>_;
but when he offended
<0816> (8799)
in Baal
<01168>_,
he died
<04191> (8799)_.
NASB ©
When Ephraim
<0669>
spoke
<01696>
, there was trembling
<07578>
. He exalted
<05375>
himself
<01931>
in Israel
<03478>
, But through Baal
<01168>
he did
<0816>
wrong
<0816>
and died
<04191>
.
HEBREW
tmyw
<04191>
lebb
<01168>
Msayw
<0816>
larvyb
<03478>
awh
<01931>
avn
<05375>
ttr
<07578>
Myrpa
<0669>
rbdk (13:1)
<01696>
LXXM
kata
<2596
PREP
ton
<3588
T-ASM
logon
<3056
N-ASM
efraim
<2187
N-PRI
dikaiwmata
<1345
N-APN
autov
<846
D-NSM
elaben
<2983
V-AAI-3S
en
<1722
PREP
tw
<3588
T-DSM
israhl
<2474
N-PRI
kai
<2532
CONJ
eyeto
<5087
V-AMI-3S
auta
<846
D-APN
th
<3588
T-DSF
baal
<896
N-PRI
kai
<2532
CONJ
apeyanen
<599
V-AAI-3S
NET © [draft] ITL
When Ephraim
<0669>
spoke
<01696>
, there was terror
<07578>
; he
<01931>
was exalted
<05375>
in Israel
<03478>
, but he became guilty
<0816>
by worshiping Baal
<01168>
and died
<04191>
.
NET ©

When Ephraim 1  spoke, 2  there was terror; 3  he was exalted 4  in Israel, but he became guilty by worshiping Baal and died.

NET © Notes

sn In Hosea the name “Ephraim” does not refer to the tribe, but to the region of Mount Ephraim where the royal residence of Samaria was located. It functions as a synecdoche of location (Mount Ephraim) for its inhabitants (the king of Samaria; e.g., 5:13; 8:8, 10).

tn The rulers of Ephraim (i.e., Samaria) issued many political decisions in the 8th century b.c. which brought “terror” to the other regions of the Northern Kingdom, as well as to Judah: “hearts shook as the trees of the forest shake before the wind” (Isa 7:2; 2 Kgs 16:5).

tn The noun רְתֵת (rÿtet, “terror, trembling”) appears only here in OT (BDB 958 s.v. רְתֵת; HALOT 1300-1301 s.v. רְתֵת). However, it is attested in 1QH 4:33 where it means “trembling” and is used as a synonym with רַעַד (raad, “quaking”). It also appears in Mishnaic Hebrew, meaning “trembling” (G. Dalman, Aramäisch-neuhebräisches Handwörterbuch, 406, s.v. רעד). This is the meaning reflected in the Greek recensions of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion, as well as Jerome’s Latin Vulgate.

tc The MT vocalizes the consonantal text as נָשָׂא (nasa’, “he exalted”; Qal perfect 3rd person masculine singular) which is syntactically awkward. The LXX and Syriac reflect a vocalization tradition of נִשָּׂא (nisa’, “he was exalted”; Niphal perfect 3rd person masculine singular). The BHS editors suggest that this revocalization should be adopted, and it has been followed by NAB, NIV, NRSV.



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