Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Hosea 11:4

Context
NET ©

I led them with leather 1  cords, with leather 2  ropes; I lifted the yoke 3  from their neck, 4  and gently fed them. 5 

NIV ©

I led them with cords of human kindness, with ties of love; I lifted the yoke from their neck and bent down to feed them.

NASB ©

I led them with cords of a man, with bonds of love, And I became to them as one who lifts the yoke from their jaws; And I bent down and fed them.

NLT ©

I led Israel along with my ropes of kindness and love. I lifted the yoke from his neck, and I myself stooped to feed him.

MSG ©

never admitted that I was the one pulling his wagon, That I lifted him, like a baby, to my cheek, that I bent down to feed him.

BBE ©

I made them come after me with the cords of a man, with the bands of love; I was to them as one who took the yoke from off their mouths, putting meat before them.

NRSV ©

I led them with cords of human kindness, with bands of love. I was to them like those who lift infants to their cheeks. I bent down to them and fed them.

NKJV ©

I drew them with gentle cords, With bands of love, And I was to them as those who take the yoke from their neck. I stooped and fed them.


KJV
I drew
<04900> (8799)
them with cords
<02256>
of a man
<0120>_,
with bands
<05688>
of love
<0160>_:
and I was to them as they that take off
<07311> (8688)
the yoke
<05923>
on their jaws
<03895>_,
and I laid
<05186> (8686)
meat
<0398> (8686)
unto them. {take off: Heb. lift up}
NASB ©
I led
<04900>
them with cords
<02256>
of a man
<0120>
, with bonds
<05688>
of love
<0160>
, And I became
<01961>
to them as one who lifts
<07311>
the yoke
<05923>
from their jaws
<03895>
; And I bent
<05186>
down
<05186>
and fed
<0398>
them.
HEBREW
lykwa
<0398>
wyla
<0413>
jaw
<0328>
Mhyxl
<03895>
le
<05921>
le
<05923>
ymyrmk
<07311>
Mhl
<0>
hyhaw
<01961>
hbha
<0160>
twtbeb
<05688>
Mksma
<04900>
Mda
<0120>
ylbxb (11:4)
<02256>
LXXM
en
<1722
PREP
diafyora
<1312
N-DSF
anyrwpwn
<444
N-GPM
exeteina
<1614
V-AAI-1S
autouv
<846
D-APM
en
<1722
PREP
desmoiv {N-DPM} agaphsewv {N-GSF} mou
<1473
P-GS
kai
<2532
CONJ
esomai
<1510
V-FMI-1S
autoiv
<846
D-DPM
wv
<3739
CONJ
rapizwn {V-PAPNS} anyrwpov
<444
N-NSM
epi
<1909
PREP
tav
<3588
T-APF
siagonav
<4600
N-APF
autou
<846
D-GSM
kai
<2532
CONJ
epibleqomai
<1914
V-FMI-1S
prov
<4314
PREP
auton
<846
D-ASM
dunhsomai
<1410
V-FMI-1S
autw
<846
D-DSM
NET © [draft] ITL
I led
<04900>
them with leather
<0160>
cords
<02256>
, with leather
<05688>
ropes; I lifted
<07311>
the yoke
<05923>
from
<05921>
their neck
<03895>
, and gently
<0328>
fed
<0398>
them.
NET ©

I led them with leather 1  cords, with leather 2  ropes; I lifted the yoke 3  from their neck, 4  and gently fed them. 5 

NET © Notes

tn Or “humane cords” or “cords of human kindness.” The noun אָדָם (’adam) is traditionally related to I אָדָם (“man”) and translated either literally or figuratively (as a metonymy of association for humane compassion): “cords of a man” (KJV, RSV margin, NASB), “cords of human kindness” (NIV, NCV), “human ties” (NJPS), “cords of compassion” (RSV). It is better to relate it to II אָדָם (“leather”; HALOT 14 s.v. אָדָם), as the parallelism with II אַהֲבָה (’ahavah, “leather”) suggests (see below). This homonymic root is well attested in Arabic ’adam (“skin”) and ’adim (“tanned skin; leather”). This better fits the context of 11:4 which compares Israel to a heifer: the Lord led him with leather cords, lifted the yoke from his neck, and fed him. Elsewhere, Hosea compares Israel to a stubborn cow (4:6) and harnessed heifer (10:11).

tn Or “ropes of love.” The noun אַהֲבָה (’ahava) is traditionally related to I אַהֲבָה (“love”; BDB 13 s.v. אַהֲבָה 2). This approach is adopted by most English translations: “bands of love” (KJV, RSV), “bonds of love” (NASB), “ties of love” (NIV), “cords of love” (NJPS). However, it is probably better to derive אַהֲבָה from the homonymic root II אַהֲבָה (“leather”; HALOT 18 s.v. II אַהֲבָה). This root is attested in Arabic and Ugaritic. It probably occurs in the description of Solomon’s sedan chair: “upholstered with purple linen, and lined with leather” (Song 3:10). This fits the context of 11:4 which compares Israel to a young heifer: the Lord led him with leather ropes, lifted the yoke from his neck, and bent down to feed him. Elsewhere, Hosea compares Israel to a stubborn cow (4:6) and a young heifer harnessed for plowing (10:11). This is supported by the parallelism with II אָדָם (’adam, “leather”; HALOT 14 s.v. II אָדָם). Of course, this might be an example of a homonymic wordplay on both roots: “ropes of leather/love.” For discussions of II אַהֲבָה, see G. R. Driver, “Supposed Arabisms in the Old Testament,” JBL 55 (1936): 111; G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 133; S. E. Loewenstamm, Thesaurus of the Language of the Bible, 1:39. D. Grossberg, “Canticles 3:10 in the Light of a Homeric Analogue and Biblical Poetics,” BTB 11 (1981): 75-76. For homonymic wordplays, see W. G. E. Watson, Classical Hebrew Poetry [JSOTSup], 237-38; J. Barr, Comparative Philology and the Text of the Old Testament, 151-55.

tn Heb “And I was to them like those who lift a yoke.”

tn Heb “their jaws” (so KJV, ASV, NASB).

tn Heb “him.” This is regarded as a collective singular by most English versions and thus translated as a plural pronoun.



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