Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Hosea 10:4

Context
NET ©

They 1  utter empty words, 2  taking 3  false oaths and making empty 4  agreements. Therefore legal disputes sprout up like poisonous weeds 5  in the furrows of a plowed field.

NIV ©

They make many promises, take false oaths and make agreements; therefore lawsuits spring up like poisonous weeds in a ploughed field.

NASB ©

They speak mere words, With worthless oaths they make covenants; And judgment sprouts like poisonous weeds in the furrows of the field.

NLT ©

They spout empty words and make promises they don’t intend to keep. So perverted justice springs up among them like poisonous weeds in a farmer’s field.

MSG ©

They talk big, lie through their teeth, make deals. But their high-sounding words turn out to be empty words, litter in the gutters.

BBE ©

Their words are foolish; they make agreements with false oaths, so punishment will come up like a poison-plant in a ploughed field.

NRSV ©

They utter mere words; with empty oaths they make covenants; so litigation springs up like poisonous weeds in the furrows of the field.

NKJV ©

They have spoken words, Swearing falsely in making a covenant. Thus judgment springs up like hemlock in the furrows of the field.


KJV
They have spoken
<01696> (8765)
words
<01697>_,
swearing
<0422> (8800)
falsely
<07723>
in making
<03772> (8800)
a covenant
<01285>_:
thus judgment
<04941>
springeth up
<06524> (8804)
as hemlock
<07219>
in the furrows
<08525>
of the field
<07704>_.
NASB ©
They speak
<01696>
mere words
<01697>
, With worthless
<07723>
oaths
<0422>
they make
<03772>
covenants
<01285>
; And judgment
<04941>
sprouts
<06524>
like poisonous
<07219>
weeds
<07219>
in the furrows
<08525>
of the field
<07706>
.
HEBREW
ydv
<07704>
ymlt
<08525>
le
<05921>
jpsm
<04941>
sark
<07219>
xrpw
<06524>
tyrb
<01285>
trk
<03772>
aws
<07723>
twla
<0422>
Myrbd
<01697>
wrbd (10:4)
<01696>
LXXM
lalwn
<2980
V-PAPNS
rhmata
<4487
N-APN
profaseiv
<4392
N-APF
qeudeiv
<5571
A-APF
diayhsetai {V-FMI-3S} diayhkhn
<1242
N-ASF
anatelei
<393
V-FAI-3S
wv
<3739
CONJ
agrwstiv {N-NSF} krima
<2917
N-NSN
epi
<1909
PREP
cerson {N-ASF} agrou
<68
N-GSM
NET © [draft] ITL
They utter
<01696>
empty words
<01697>
, taking false
<07723>
oaths
<0422>
and making
<03772>
empty agreements
<01285>
. Therefore legal disputes
<04941>
sprout up
<06524>
like poisonous weeds
<07219>
in
<05921>
the furrows
<08525>
of a plowed field
<07704>
.
NET ©

They 1  utter empty words, 2  taking 3  false oaths and making empty 4  agreements. Therefore legal disputes sprout up like poisonous weeds 5  in the furrows of a plowed field.

NET © Notes

tc The referent of the 3rd person common plural verb דִּבְּרוּ (dibbÿru, “they speak”) is the masculine singular noun וְהַמֶּלֶךְ (vÿhammelekh, “a king” in v. 3) which is used generically, representing all human kings of Israel to which the 3rd common plural verb refers. Although this is a bit syntactically awkward, it is not necessary to emend the MT to the 3rd masculine singular verb form דָּבַר (davar, “he speaks”) as the BHS editors suggest. The LXX, however, reads the singular form λαλῶν (lalwn, “uttering”).

tn Heb “they speak words.” The cognate accusative construction דִּבְּרוּ דְבָרִים (dibbÿru dÿvarim; literally, “they speak words”) is an idiom that means “they speak mere words” (so NASB; NRSV similar) or “they utter empty words” (so TEV), that is, they make empty promises (e.g., Isa 58:13; BDB 180-181 s.v. דָּבַר 2). The immediately following collocated phrase אָלוֹת שָׁוְא (’alot shavÿ’, “swearing an empty oath”) confirms this nuance. The LXX understood this idiom in the same way: λαλῶν ῥήματα προφάσειας ψευδεῖς (lalwn r{hmata profaseias yeudeis, “speaking false professions as his words”).

tn The two infinitive absolutes אָלוֹת (’alot, Qal infinitive absolute from II אָלָה, ’alah, “to swear an oath”; BDB 46 s.v. II אָלָה) and כָּרֹת (karot, Qal infinitive absolute from כָּרַת, karat, “to make [a covenant]”; BDB 503 s.v. כָּרַת 4), which appear without conjunctions, continue the description of the action of the preceding finite verb דִּבְּרוּ (dibbÿru, Piel perfect 3rd person common plural from דָּבַר, davar, “to speak”). Although the infinitives continue the description of the action of the finite verb, they call special attention to the action of the infinitive rather than the action of the finite verb. See IBHS 595 §35.5.2b.

tn The word “empty” is not in the Hebrew text, but is implied. It is supplied in the translation for clarity. Cf. TEV “useless treaties.”

tn The noun II רֹאשׁ (rosh) refers to a “poisonous plant” (Deut 29:17; Hos 10:4) or “bitter herb” (Ps 69:22; Lam 3:5; BDB 912 s.v. רֹאשׁ 1; HALOT 1167 s.v. רֹאשׁ 1).



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