Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Genesis 9:22

Context
NET ©

Ham, the father of Canaan, 1  saw his father’s nakedness 2  and told his two brothers who were outside.

NIV ©

Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father’s nakedness and told his two brothers outside.

NASB ©

Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brothers outside.

NLT ©

Ham, the father of Canaan, saw that his father was naked and went outside and told his brothers.

MSG ©

Ham, the father of Canaan, saw that his father was naked and told his two brothers who were outside the tent.

BBE ©

And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father unclothed, and gave news of it to his two brothers outside.

NRSV ©

And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brothers outside.

NKJV ©

And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brothers outside.


KJV
And Ham
<02526>_,
the father
<01>
of Canaan
<03667>_,
saw
<07200> (8799)
the nakedness
<06172>
of his father
<01>_,
and told
<05046> (8686)
his two
<08147>
brethren
<0251>
without
<02351>_.
NASB ©
Ham
<02526>
, the father
<01>
of Canaan
<03667>
, saw
<07200>
the nakedness
<06172>
of his father
<01>
, and told
<05046>
his two
<08147>
brothers
<0251>
outside
<02351>
.
HEBREW
Uwxb
<02351>
wyxa
<0251>
ynsl
<08147>
dgyw
<05046>
wyba
<01>
twre
<06172>
ta
<0853>
Nenk
<03667>
yba
<01>
Mx
<02526>
aryw (9:22)
<07200>
LXXM
kai
<2532
CONJ
eiden
<3708
V-AAI-3S
cam {N-PRI} o
<3588
T-NSM
pathr
<3962
N-NSM
canaan
<5477
N-PRI
thn
<3588
T-ASF
gumnwsin {N-ASF} tou
<3588
T-GSM
patrov
<3962
N-GSM
autou
<846
D-GSM
kai
<2532
CONJ
exelywn
<1831
V-AAPNS
anhggeilen
<312
V-AAI-3S
toiv
<3588
T-DPM
dusin
<1417
N-NUI
adelfoiv
<80
N-DPM
autou
<846
D-GSM
exw
<1854
ADV
NET © [draft] ITL
Ham
<02526>
, the father
<01>
of Canaan
<03667>
, saw
<07200>
his father’s
<01>
nakedness
<06172>
and told
<05046>
his two
<08147>
brothers
<0251>
who were outside
<02351>
.
NET ©

Ham, the father of Canaan, 1  saw his father’s nakedness 2  and told his two brothers who were outside.

NET © Notes

sn For the second time (see v. 18) the text informs the reader of the relationship between Ham and Canaan. Genesis 10 will explain that Canaan was the ancestor of the Canaanite tribes living in the promised land.

tn Some would translate “had sexual relations with,” arguing that Ham committed a homosexual act with his drunken father for which he was cursed. However, the expression “see nakedness” usually refers to observation of another’s nakedness, not a sexual act (see Gen 42:9, 12 where “nakedness” is used metaphorically to convey the idea of “weakness” or “vulnerability”; Deut 23:14 where “nakedness” refers to excrement; Isa 47:3; Ezek 16:37; Lam 1:8). The following verse (v. 23) clearly indicates that visual observation, not a homosexual act, is in view here. In Lev 20:17 the expression “see nakedness” does appear to be a euphemism for sexual intercourse, but the context there, unlike that of Gen 9:22, clearly indicates that in that passage sexual contact is in view. The expression “see nakedness” does not in itself suggest a sexual connotation. Some relate Gen 9:22 to Lev 18:6-11, 15-19, where the expression “uncover [another’s] nakedness” (the Piel form of גָּלָה, galah) refers euphemistically to sexual intercourse. However, Gen 9:22 does not say Ham “uncovered” the nakedness of his father. According to the text, Noah uncovered himself; Ham merely saw his father naked. The point of the text is that Ham had no respect for his father. Rather than covering his father up, he told his brothers. Noah then gave an oracle that Ham’s descendants, who would be characterized by the same moral abandonment, would be cursed. Leviticus 18 describes that greater evil of the Canaanites (see vv. 24-28).

sn Saw the nakedness. It is hard for modern people to appreciate why seeing another’s nakedness was such an abomination, because nakedness is so prevalent today. In the ancient world, especially in a patriarchal society, seeing another’s nakedness was a major offense. (See the account in Herodotus, Histories 1.8-13, where a general saw the nakedness of his master’s wife, and one of the two had to be put to death.) Besides, Ham was not a little boy wandering into his father’s bedroom; he was over a hundred years old by this time. For fuller discussion see A. P. Ross, “The Curse of Canaan,” BSac 137 (1980): 223-40.



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