Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Galatians 3:19

Context
NET ©

Why then was the law given? 1  It was added 2  because of transgressions, 3  until the arrival of the descendant 4  to whom the promise had been made. It was administered 5  through angels by an intermediary. 6 

NIV ©

What, then, was the purpose of the law? It was added because of transgressions until the Seed to whom the promise referred had come. The law was put into effect through angels by a mediator.

NASB ©

Why the Law then? It was added because of transgressions, having been ordained through angels by the agency of a mediator, until the seed would come to whom the promise had been made.

NLT ©

Well then, why was the law given? It was given to show people how guilty they are. But this system of law was to last only until the coming of the child to whom God’s promise was made. And there is this further difference. God gave his laws to angels to give to Moses, who was the mediator between God and the people.

MSG ©

The purpose of the law was to keep a sinful people in the way of salvation until Christ (the descendant) came, inheriting the promises and distributing them to us. Obviously this law was not a firsthand encounter with God. It was arranged by angelic messengers through a middleman, Moses.

BBE ©

What then is the law? It was an addition made because of sin, till the coming of the seed to whom the undertaking had been given; and it was ordered through angels by the hand of a go-between.

NRSV ©

Why then the law? It was added because of transgressions, until the offspring would come to whom the promise had been made; and it was ordained through angels by a mediator.

NKJV ©

What purpose then does the law serve ? It was added because of transgressions, till the Seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was appointed through angels by the hand of a mediator.


KJV
Wherefore
<5101>
then
<3767>
[serveth] the law
<3551>_?
It was added
<4369> (5681)
because of
<5484>
transgressions
<3847>_,
till
<891> <3757>
the seed
<4690>
should come
<2064> (5632)
to whom
<3739>
the promise was made
<1861> (5766)_;
[and it was] ordained
<1299> (5651)
by
<1223>
angels
<32>
in
<1722>
the hand
<5495>
of a mediator
<3316>_.
NASB ©
Why
<5101>
the Law
<3551>
then
<3767>
? It was added
<4369>
because
<5484>
of transgressions
<3847>
, having been ordained
<1299>
through
<1223>
angels
<32>
by the agency
<5495>
of a mediator
<3316>
, until
<891>
the seed
<4690>
would come
<2064>
to whom
<3739>
the promise
<1861>
had been made
<1861>
.
GREEK
ti
<5101>
I-NSN
oun
<3767>
CONJ
o
<3588>
T-NSM
nomov
<3551>
N-NSM
twn
<3588>
T-GPF
parabasewn
<3847>
N-GPF
carin
<5484>
ADV
proseteyh
<4369> (5681)
V-API-3S
acriv
<891>
PREP
an
<302>
PRT
elyh
<2064> (5632)
V-2AAS-3S
to
<3588>
T-NSN
sperma
<4690>
N-NSN
w
<3739>
R-DSM
ephggeltai
<1861> (5766)
V-RNI-3S
diatageiv
<1299> (5651)
V-2APP-NSM
di
<1223>
PREP
aggelwn
<32>
N-GPM
en
<1722>
PREP
ceiri
<5495>
N-DSF
mesitou
<3316>
N-GSM
NET © [draft] ITL
Why
<5101>
then
<3767>
was the law
<3551>
given? It was added
<4369>
because of transgressions
<3847>
, until
<891>
the arrival
<2064>
of the descendant
<4690>
to whom
<3739>
the promise
<1861>
had been made. It was administered
<1299>
through
<1223>
angels
<32>
by
<1722>
an intermediary
<3316>
.
NET ©

Why then was the law given? 1  It was added 2  because of transgressions, 3  until the arrival of the descendant 4  to whom the promise had been made. It was administered 5  through angels by an intermediary. 6 

NET © Notes

tn Grk “Why then the law?”

tc For προσετέθη (proseteqh) several Western mss have ἐτέθη (eteqh, “it was established”; so D* F G it Irlat Ambst Spec). The net effect of this reading, in conjunction with the largely Western reading of πράξεων (praxewn) for παραβάσεων (parabasewn), seems to be a very positive assessment of the law. But there are compelling reasons for rejecting this reading: (1) externally, it is provincial and relatively late; (2) internally: (a) transcriptionally, there seems to be a much higher transcriptional probability that a scribe would try to smooth over Paul’s harsh saying here about the law than vice versa; (b) intrinsically: [1] Paul has already argued that the law came after the promise (vv. 15-18), indicating, more than likely, its temporary nature; [2] the verb “was added” in v. 19 (προσετέθη) is different from the verb in v. 15 (ἐπιδιατάσσεται, epidiatassetai); virtually all exegetes recognize this as an intentional linguistic shift on Paul’s part in order not to contradict his statement in v. 15; [3] the temper of 3:14:7 is decidedly against a positive statement about the Torah’s role in Heilsgeschichte.

tc παραδόσεων (paradosewn; “traditions, commandments”) is read by D*, while the vast majority of witnesses read παραβάσεων (parabasewn, “transgressions”). D’s reading makes little sense in this context. πράξεων (praxewn, “of deeds”) replaces παραβάσεων in Ì46 F G it Irlat Ambst Spec. The wording is best taken as going with νόμος (nomo"; “Why then the law of deeds?”), as is evident by the consistent punctuation in the later witnesses. But such an expression is unpauline and superfluous; it was almost certainly added by some early scribe(s) to soften the blow of Paul’s statement.

tn Grk “the seed.” See the note on the first occurrence of the word “descendant” in 3:16.

tn Or “was ordered.” L&N 31.22 has “was put into effect” here.

tn Many modern translations (NASB, NIV, NRSV) render this word (μεσίτης, mesith"; here and in v. 20) as “mediator,” but this conveys a wrong impression in contemporary English. If this is referring to Moses, he certainly did not “mediate” between God and Israel but was an intermediary on God’s behalf. Moses was not a mediator, for example, who worked for compromise between opposing parties. He instead was God’s representative to his people who enabled them to have a relationship, but entirely on God’s terms.



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