Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Galatians 1:3

Context
NET ©

Grace and peace to you 1  from God the Father and our 2  Lord Jesus Christ,

NIV ©

Grace and peace to you from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ,

NASB ©

Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ,

NLT ©

May grace and peace be yours from God our Father and from the Lord Jesus Christ.

MSG ©

So I greet you with the great words, grace and peace!

BBE ©

Grace to you and peace from God the Father and our Lord Jesus Christ,

NRSV ©

Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ,

NKJV ©

Grace to you and peace from God the Father and our Lord Jesus Christ,


KJV
Grace
<5485>
[be] to you
<5213>
and
<2532>
peace
<1515>
from
<575>
God
<2316>
the Father
<3962>_,
and
<2532>
[from] our
<2257>
Lord
<2962>
Jesus
<2424>
Christ
<5547>_,
NASB ©
Grace
<5485>
to you and peace
<1515>
from God
<2316>
our Father
<3962>
and the Lord
<2962>
Jesus
<2424>
Christ
<5547>
,
GREEK
cariv
<5485>
N-NSF
umin
<5213>
P-2DP
kai
<2532>
CONJ
eirhnh
<1515>
N-NSF
apo
<575>
PREP
yeou
<2316>
N-GSM
patrov
<3962>
N-GSM
hmwn
<2257>
P-1GP
kai
<2532>
CONJ
kuriou
<2962>
N-GSM
ihsou
<2424>
N-GSM
cristou
<5547>
N-GSM
NET © [draft] ITL
Grace
<5485>
and
<2532>
peace
<1515>
to you
<5213>
from
<575>
God
<2316>
the Father
<3962>
and
<2532>
our
<2257>
Lord
<2962>
Jesus
<2424>
Christ
<5547>
,
NET ©

Grace and peace to you 1  from God the Father and our 2  Lord Jesus Christ,

NET © Notes

tn Grk “Grace to you and peace.”

tc ‡ The unusual order καὶ κυρίου ἡμῶν (kai kuriou Jhmwn), which produces the reading “our Lord Jesus Christ” instead of “God our Father,” is read by Ì46,51vid B D F G H 1739 1881 Ï sy sa, while the more normal ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου (Jhmwn kai kuriou) is found in א A P Ψ 33 81 326 365 2464 pc. Thus, the reading adopted in the translation is more widespread geographically and is found in the two earliest witnesses, along with several good representatives of the Alexandrian, Western, and Byzantine texttypes. Internally, there would be a strong motivation for scribes to change the order: “from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ” is Paul’s normal greeting; here alone is the pronoun attached to “Jesus Christ” (except in the pastorals, though the greeting in these letters is nevertheless unlike the rest of the corpus Paulinum). Intrinsically, the chosen reading is superior as well: Scribes would be prone to emulate Paul’s regular style, while in an early letter such as this one his regular style was yet to be established (for a similar situation, cf. the text-critical discussion at 1 Thess 1:1). Hence, there is a strong probability that the reading in the translation is authentic. Although B. M. Metzger argues that “the apostle’s stereotyped formula was altered by copyists who, apparently in the interest of Christian piety, transferred the possessive pronoun so it would be more closely associated with ‘Lord Jesus Christ’” (TCGNT 520), one might expect to see the same alterations in other Pauline letters. That this is not the case argues for “our Lord Jesus Christ” as the authentic reading here.



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