Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Romans 1:1

Context
NETBible

From Paul, 1  a slave 2  of Christ Jesus, 3  called to be an apostle, 4  set apart for the gospel of God. 5 

XREF

Le 20:24-26; Nu 16:9,10; De 10:8; 1Ch 23:13; Isa 49:1; Jer 1:5; Mr 16:15,16; Lu 2:10,11; Joh 12:26; Joh 13:14-16; Joh 15:15,20; Ac 9:15; Ac 13:2-4; Ac 13:9; Ac 20:24; Ac 21:40; Ac 22:7,13; Ac 22:14,15,21; Ac 26:1,14; Ac 26:16-18; Ac 27:23; Ro 1:5; Ro 1:9; Ro 1:9,16; Ro 11:13; Ro 15:16; Ro 15:16,29; Ro 16:18; Ro 16:25; 1Co 1:1; 1Co 9:1,16-18; 1Co 15:8-10; 2Co 1:1; 2Co 4:5; 2Co 11:5; 2Co 12:11; Ga 1:1,11-17; Ga 1:10; Ga 1:15; Eph 1:1; Eph 1:13; Eph 3:5-7; Eph 4:11; Php 1:1; Php 2:11; Php 3:6,7; Col 1:1,25; 1Th 2:2; 2Th 2:13,14; 1Ti 1:1,11,12; 1Ti 1:11; 1Ti 1:15,16; 1Ti 2:7; 2Ti 1:11; Tit 1:1; Heb 5:4; Heb 7:26; Jas 1:1; 2Pe 1:1; Jude 1:1; Re 1:1; Re 22:6,9

NET © Notes

tn Grk “Paul.” The word “from” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to indicate the sender of the letter.

tn Traditionally, “servant.” Though δοῦλος (doulos) is normally translated “servant,” the word does not bear the connotation of a free individual serving another. BDAG notes that “‘servant’ for ‘slave’ is largely confined to Biblical transl. and early American times…in normal usage at the present time the two words are carefully distinguished” (BDAG 260 s.v.). The most accurate translation is “bondservant” (sometimes found in the ASV for δοῦλος), in that it often indicates one who sells himself into slavery to another. But as this is archaic, few today understand its force.

sn Undoubtedly the background for the concept of being the Lord’s “slave” or “servant” is to be found in the Old Testament scriptures. For someone who was Jewish this concept did not connote drudgery, but honor and privilege. It was used of national Israel at times (Isa 43:10), but was especially associated with famous OT personalities, including such great men as Moses (Josh 14:7), David (Ps 89:3; cf. 2 Sam 7:5, 8) and Elijah (2 Kgs 10:10); all these men were “servants (or slaves) of the Lord.”

tc Many important mss, as well as several others (Ì26 א A G Ψ 33 1739 1881 Ï), have a reversed order of these words and read “Jesus Christ” rather than “Christ Jesus” (Ì10 B 81 pc). The meaning is not affected in either case, but the reading “Christ Jesus” is preferred as slightly more difficult and thus more likely the original (a scribe who found it would be prone to change it to the more common expression). At the same time, Paul is fond of the order “Christ Jesus,” especially in certain letters such as Romans, Galatians, and Philippians. As well, the later Pauline letters almost uniformly use this order in the salutations. A decision is difficult, but “Christ Jesus” is slightly preferred.

tn Grk “a called apostle.”

tn The genitive in the phrase εὐαγγέλιον θεοῦ (euangelion qeou, “the gospel of God”) could be translated as (1) a subjective genitive (“the gospel which God brings”) or (2) an objective genitive (“the gospel about God”). Either is grammatically possible. This is possibly an instance of a plenary genitive (see ExSyn 119-21; M. Zerwick, Biblical Greek, §§36-39). If so, an interplay between the two concepts is intended: The gospel which God brings is in fact the gospel about himself. However, in view of God’s action in v. 2 concerning this gospel, a subjective genitive notion (“the gospel which God brings”) is slightly preferred.



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