Nations are in uproar, kingdoms fall; he lifts his voice, the earth melts.
The nations made an uproar, the kingdoms tottered; He raised His voice, the earth melted.
The nations are in an uproar, and kingdoms crumble! God thunders, and the earth melts!
Godless nations rant and rave, kings and kingdoms threaten, but Earth does anything he says.
The nations were angry, the kingdoms were moved; at the sound of his voice the earth became like wax.
The nations are in an uproar, the kingdoms totter; he utters his voice, the earth melts.
The nations raged, the kingdoms were moved; He uttered His voice, the earth melted.
|NET © [draft] ITL|
|NET © Notes||
1 tn Heb “nations roar, kingdoms shake.” The Hebrew verb הָמָה (hamah, “roar, be in uproar”) is used in v. 3 of the waves crashing, while the verb מוֹט (mot, “overthrown”) is used in v. 2 of mountains tumbling into the sea (see also v. 5, where the psalm affirms that Jerusalem “cannot be moved”). The repetition of the verbs suggests that the language of vv. 2-3 is symbolic and depicts the upheaval that characterizes relationships between the nations of the earth. As some nations (symbolized by the surging, chaotic waters) show hostility, others (symbolized by the mountains) come crashing down to destruction. The surging waters are symbolic of chaotic forces in other poetic texts (see, for example, Isa 17:12; Jer 51:42) and mountains can symbolize strong kingdoms (see, for example, Jer 51:25).
2 tn Heb “He.” God is the obvious referent here (see v. 5), and has been specified in the translation for clarity.
3 tn Heb “offers his voice.” In theophanic texts the phrase refers to God’s thunderous shout which functions as a battle cry (see Pss 18:13; 68:33).
4 tn Or “melts.” See Amos 9:5. The image depicts the nation’s helplessness before Jerusalem’s defender, who annihilates their armies (see vv. 8-9). The imperfect verbal form emphasizes the characteristic nature of the action described.