Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Proverbs 2:18

Context
NET ©

For her house 1  sinks 2  down to death, and her paths lead 3  to the place of the departed spirits. 4 

NIV ©

For her house leads down to death and her paths to the spirits of the dead.

NASB ©

For her house sinks down to death And her tracks lead to the dead;

NLT ©

Entering her house leads to death; it is the road to hell.

MSG ©

Her whole way of life is doomed; every step she takes brings her closer to hell.

BBE ©

For her house is on the way down to death; her footsteps go down to the shades:

NRSV ©

for her way leads down to death, and her paths to the shades;

NKJV ©

For her house leads down to death, And her paths to the dead;


KJV
For her house
<01004>
inclineth
<07743> (8804)
unto death
<04194>_,
and her paths
<04570>
unto the dead
<07496>_.
NASB ©
For her house
<01004>
sinks
<07743>
down
<07743>
to death
<04194>
And her tracks
<04570>
lead to the dead
<07496>
;
HEBREW
hytlgem
<04570>
Myapr
<07496>
law
<0413>
htyb
<01004>
twm
<04194>
la
<0413>
hxs
<07743>
yk (2:18)
<03588>
LXXM
eyeto
<5087
V-AMI-3S
gar
<1063
PRT
para
<3844
PREP
tw
<3588
T-DSM
yanatw
<2288
N-DSM
ton
<3588
T-ASM
oikon
<3624
N-ASM
authv
<846
D-GSF
kai
<2532
CONJ
para
<3844
PREP
tw
<3588
T-DSM
adh
<86
N-DSM
meta
<3326
PREP
twn
<3588
T-GPM
ghgenwn {A-GPM} touv
<3588
T-APM
axonav {N-APM} authv
<846
D-GSF
NET © [draft] ITL
For
<03588>
her house
<01004>
sinks down
<07743>
to
<0413>
death
<04194>
, and her paths
<04570>
lead to
<0413>
the place of the departed spirits
<07496>
.
NET ©

For her house 1  sinks 2  down to death, and her paths lead 3  to the place of the departed spirits. 4 

NET © Notes

tn Or “she sinks her house down to death.” The syntax of this line is difficult. The verb שָׁחָה is Qal perfect 3rd person feminine singular of שׁוּחַ (“to sink down”) which must take a feminine singular subject – most likely the “loose woman” of 2:16-17. However, most English versions take בֵּיתָהּ (betah) “her house” (ms noun + 3rd person feminine singular suffix) as the subject (e.g., KJV, RSV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, CEV): “her house sinks down to death.” But בֵּיתָהּ “her house” (ms noun + 3rd person feminine singular suffix) is masculine rather than feminine so it cannot be the subject. K&D 16:83 suggests that בֵּיתָהּ (“her house”) is a permutative noun that qualifies the subject: “she together with all that belongs to her [her house] sinks down to death” (GKC 425 §131.k). D. Kidner suggests that “her house” is in apposition to “death” (e.g., Job 17:13; 30:23; Prov 9:18; Eccl 12:5), meaning that death is her house: “she sinks down to death, which is her house” (Proverbs [TOTC], 62). The BHS editors attempt to resolve this syntactical problem by suggesting a conjectural emendation of MT בֵּיתָהּ (“her house”) to the feminine singular noun נְתִיבֹתֶהָּ (“her path”) which appears in 7:27, to recover a feminine subject for the verb: “her path sinks down to death.” However, the reading of the MT is supported by all the versions.

tc The MT reads שָׁחָה (Qal perfect 3rd person feminine singular of שׁוּחַ “to sink down”): “she sinks her house down to death.” The LXX reflects שָׁתָה (shatah, Qal perfect 3rd person feminine singular of שִׁית (shith) “to place; to put”): “she established her house near death.” This is a matter of simple orthographic confusion between ח (khet) and ת (tav). The MT preserves the more difficult reading (see following note) so it is probably the original.

tn The verb “lead” is not in the Hebrew but is implied by the parallelism; it is supplied in the translation for the sake of smoothness.

tn Heb “to the departed spirits” or “to the Rephaim.” The term רְפָאִים (rÿfaim, “Rephaim”) refers to spirits of the dead who are inhabitants of Sheol (BDB 952 s.v.; HALOT 1274-75 s.v. I רְפָאִים). It is used in parallelism with מֵתִים (metim, “the dead”) to refer to the departed spirits of the dead in Sheol (Ps 88:11; Isa 26:14). The Rephaim inhabit מָוֶת (mavet, “[place of] death”; Prov 2: 18), שְׁאוֹל (shÿol, “Sheol”; Job 26:5; Prov 9:18; Isa 14:9), “darkness and the land of forgetfulness” (Ps 88:14), and “the land of the Rephaim” (Isa 26:19). Scholars debate whether רְפָאִים is derived from the root (1) רָפָא (rafa’, “to heal”), meaning “the healers” or (2) רָפָה (rafah, “to be weak; to sink down”), meaning “the powerless ones” or “those who sink down (to Sheol)” (BDB 952 s.v.; HALOT 1274-75 s.v.). The related term occurs in Phoenician and Neo-Punic meaning “spirits of the dead” (DISO 282) and in Ugaritic referring to “spirits of the dead” who inhabited the underworld and were viewed as healers (UT 2346; WUS 2527). The Hebrew term is often translated “the shades” as a description of the shadowy existence of those who dwelling in Sheol who have lost their vitality (R. F. Schnell, IDB 4:35). Used here in parallelism with מָוֶת (“[place of] death”), רְפָאִים (“the Rephaim”) probably functions as a synecdoche of inhabitants (= the departed spirits of the dead) for the place inhabited (= Sheol). The point of this line is that those who fall prey to an adulteress will end up among the departed spirits in the realm of the dead. This might mean (1) physical death: he will get himself killed by her zealous husband (e.g., Prov 5:23; 6:32-35; 7:23-27) or (2) spiritual death: he will find himself estranged from the community, isolated from the blessings of God, a moral leper, living a shadowy existence of “death” in the land of no return (W. McKane, Proverbs [OTL], 288).



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