Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Proverbs 1:4

Context
NET ©

To impart 1  shrewdness 2  to the morally naive, 3  and 4  a discerning 5  plan 6  to the young person. 7 

NIV ©

for giving prudence to the simple, knowledge and discretion to the young—

NASB ©

To give prudence to the naive, To the youth knowledge and discretion,

NLT ©

These proverbs will make the simpleminded clever. They will give knowledge and purpose to young people.

MSG ©

To teach the inexperienced the ropes and give our young people a grasp on reality.

BBE ©

To make the simple-minded sharp, and to give the young man knowledge, and serious purpose:

NRSV ©

to teach shrewdness to the simple, knowledge and prudence to the young—

NKJV ©

To give prudence to the simple, To the young man knowledge and discretion––


KJV
To give
<05414> (8800)
subtilty
<06195>
to the simple
<06612>_,
to the young man
<05288>
knowledge
<01847>
and discretion
<04209>_.
{discretion: or, advisement}
NASB ©
To give
<05414>
prudence
<06195>
to the naive
<06612>
, To the youth
<05288>
knowledge
<01847>
and discretion
<04209>
,
HEBREW
hmzmw
<04209>
ted
<01847>
renl
<05288>
hmre
<06195>
Myatpl
<06612>
ttl (1:4)
<05414>
LXXM
ina
<2443
CONJ
dw
<1325
V-AAS-3S
akakoiv
<172
A-DPM
panourgian
<3834
N-ASF
paidi
<3816
N-DSM
de
<1161
PRT
new
<3501
A-DSM
aisyhsin
<144
N-ASF
te
<5037
PRT
kai
<2532
CONJ
ennoian
<1771
N-ASF
NET © [draft] ITL
To impart shrewdness
<06195>
to the morally naive
<06612>
, and a discerning plan to the young person
<05288>
.
NET ©

To impart 1  shrewdness 2  to the morally naive, 3  and 4  a discerning 5  plan 6  to the young person. 7 

NET © Notes

tn Heb “to give.” The infinitive construct + ל (lamed) here introduces the fourth purpose of the book: It reveals the purpose from the perspective of the teacher. It is what the wise instructor/sage wants to impart to the naive youths.

tn The noun עָרְמָה (’arÿmah) “prudence, shrewdness, craftiness” (BDB 791 s.v.) or “cleverness” (HALOT 886 s.v. 1) refers to a shrewd plan of action, viewed positively or negatively. It is used negatively of planned deception (Josh 9:4) and premeditated murder (Exod 21:14). The related adjective described the serpent as “shrewd, crafty, cunning” (Gen 3:1); it describes cunning plans (Job 5:12) and deception (Job 15:5). The related verb describes a wicked concocted plan (Ps 83:4). The term is used positively of a morally prudent lifestyle (Prov 8:5, 12; 15:5; 19:25). There is no virtue for simpletons to be unaware in this world; they need to be wise as serpents. Proverbs provide a morally shrewd plan for life.

tn Heb “the naive” or “simpleton.” The substantival adjective פֶּתִי (peti) means “simple; open-minded” in the sense of being open and easily influenced by either wisdom or folly (BDB 834 s.v.; HALOT 989 s.v. I פֶּתִי). The simpleton is easily enticed and misled (Prov 1:32; 7:7; 9:6; 22:3; 27:12); believes everything, including bad counsel (Prov 14:15); lacks moral prudence (Prov 8:5; 19:25); needs discernment (Prov 21:11); but is capable of learning (Prov 9:4, 16). The related verb means “to be wide open; open-minded; enticed, deceived” (BDB 834). The term describes one easily persuaded and gullible, open to any influence, good or bad (cf. NLT “the simpleminded”). This is the “wide-eyed youth” who is headed for trouble unless he listens to the counsel of wisdom.

tn The conjunction “and” does not appear in the Hebrew text but is implied; it is supplied in the translation for the sake of smoothness and style.

tn Heb “knowledge and purpose.” The noun דַּעַת (daat, “knowledge”) may be nuanced “discernment” here (HALOT 229 s.v. I דַּעַת 4). The nouns וּמְזִמָּה דַּעַת (daat umÿzimmah, “discernment and purpose”) form a hendiadys (two nouns joined with vav to describe the same thing): The first noun functions adjectivally and the second functions as a noun: “discerning plan.” This parallels “a shrewd plan for the morally naive” or “a discerning plan for the young person.”

tn The noun מְזִמָּה (mÿzimmah) may mean (1) “plan” or (2) “discretion” (BDB 273 s.v.; HALOT 566 s.v.). It describes the ability to make plans or formulate the best course of action for gaining a goal (C. H. Toy, Proverbs [ICC], 7). The related verb זָמַם (zamam) means “to plan; to devise” (BDB 273 s.v.; HALOT 272 s.v. I זמם; e.g., Gen 11:6). Here the nouns “knowledge and plan” (וּמְזִמָּה דַּעַת, daat umÿzimmah) form a hendiadys: knowledge of how to form and carry out a morally wise plan for life.

tn Heb “young man” or “youth.”



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