Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Nahum 3:4

Context
NET ©

“Because 1  you have acted like a wanton prostitute 2  – a seductive mistress who practices sorcery, 3  who 4  enslaves 5  nations by her harlotry, 6  and entices peoples by her sorcery 7 

NIV ©

all because of the wanton lust of a harlot, alluring, the mistress of sorceries, who enslaved nations by her prostitution and peoples by her witchcraft.

NASB ©

All because of the many harlotries of the harlot, The charming one, the mistress of sorceries, Who sells nations by her harlotries And families by her sorceries.

NLT ©

All this because Nineveh, the beautiful and faithless city, mistress of deadly charms, enticed the nations with her beauty. She taught them all to worship her false gods, enchanting people everywhere.

MSG ©

And whores! Whores without end! Whore City, Fatally seductive, you're the Witch of Seduction, luring nations to their ruin with your evil spells.

BBE ©

Because of all the false ways of the loose woman, expert in attraction and wise in secret arts, who takes nations in the net of her false ways, and families through her secret arts.

NRSV ©

Because of the countless debaucheries of the prostitute, gracefully alluring, mistress of sorcery, who enslaves nations through her debaucheries, and peoples through her sorcery,

NKJV ©

Because of the multitude of harlotries of the seductive harlot, The mistress of sorceries, Who sells nations through her harlotries, And families through her sorceries.


KJV
Because of the multitude
<07230>
of the whoredoms
<02183>
of the wellfavoured
<02896> <02580>
harlot
<02181> (8802)_,
the mistress
<01172>
of witchcrafts
<03785>_,
that selleth
<04376> (8802)
nations
<01471>
through her whoredoms
<02183>_,
and families
<04940>
through her witchcrafts
<03785>_.
NASB ©
All because
<04480>
of the many
<07230>
harlotries
<02183>
of the harlot
<02181>
, The charming
<02580>
<2896> one
<02896>
, the mistress
<01172>
of sorceries
<03785>
, Who sells
<04376>
nations
<01471>
by her harlotries
<02183>
And families
<04940>
by her sorceries
<03785>
.
HEBREW
hypskb
<03785>
twxpsmw
<04940>
hynwnzb
<02183>
Mywg
<01471>
trkmh
<04376>
Mypsk
<03785>
tleb
<01172>
Nx
<02580>
tbwj
<02896>
hnwz
<02181>
ynwnz
<02181>
brm (3:4)
<07230>
LXXM
apo
<575
PREP
plhyouv
<4128
N-GSN
porneiav
<4202
N-GSF
pornh
<4204
N-NSF
kalh
<2570
A-NSF
kai
<2532
CONJ
epicarhv {A-NSM} hgoumenh
<2233
V-PMPNS
farmakwn {N-GPN} h
<3588
T-NSF
pwlousa
<4453
V-PAPNS
eynh
<1484
N-APN
en
<1722
PREP
th
<3588
T-DSF
porneia
<4202
N-DSF
authv
<846
D-GSF
kai
<2532
CONJ
fulav
<5443
N-APF
en
<1722
PREP
toiv
<3588
T-DPM
farmakoiv {N-DPN} authv
<846
D-GSF
NET © [draft] ITL
“Because you have acted like
<02181>
a wanton
<07230>
prostitute
<02181>
– a seductive
<02580>
mistress who practices
<01172>
sorcery
<03785>
, who enslaves
<04376>
nations
<01471>
by her harlotry
<02183>
, and entices peoples
<04940>
by her sorcery
<03785>
NET ©

“Because 1  you have acted like a wanton prostitute 2  – a seductive mistress who practices sorcery, 3  who 4  enslaves 5  nations by her harlotry, 6  and entices peoples by her sorcery 7 

NET © Notes

tn The preposition מִן (min) on מֵרֹב (merov; Heb “from the abundance of harlotries”) is causal: “because of; in consequence of” (HALOT 598 מִן 6; BDB 579-80 s.v. מִן 2.e). See, e.g., Exod 2:23; 15:23; Deut 7:7; 2 Sam 3:11, 37; Job 22:4; Isa 6:4; 43:4; 53:5; Ezek 28:5, 18; Nah 1:5; Zech 2:8; see also IBHS 213 §11.2.11.d; R. J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax, 58, §319. The causal sense is supported by the LXX’s ἀπό (apo, “from, because of”). Most English versions adopt the causal sense (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NJPS).

tn Heb “Because of the many harlotries of the harlot.” The MT connects v. 4 with vv. 5-6; however, the LXX connects v. 4 with vv. 1-3. The Masoretic division is followed by NRSV and NJPS; the LXX division is followed by KJV and NIV; and the NASB division equivocates on the issue. It is best to connect v. 4 with vv. 5-6 (following the MT) because: (1) vv. 1-3 constitute a self-contained woe-oracle; and (2) the theme of the harlot unifies vv. 4-6: the accusation against the harlot (v. 4) and the stereotypical punishment of the harlot (vv. 5-6).

tn Heb “fair of form, a mistress of sorceries.”

tn Heb “she.” This has been translated as a relative pronoun for stylistic reasons. The shift from 2nd person feminine singular (“you”) to 3rd person feminine singular (“she”) is an example of heterosis of persons, a common literary/poetic device used in Hebrew poetry and prophetic literature.

tc The MT reads the Qal participle הַמֹּכֶרֶת (hammokheret) which is derived from מָכַר (makhar, “to sell, to betray”): “the one who sells/betrays [nations].” The MT is supported by the LXX. The Dead Sea Scrolls read הממכרת (4QpNah 2:7): “the one who sells/betrays [nations]” (see DJD 5:38). Dahood repoints the MT as a Hophal participle, הַמֻּכֶּרֶת (hammukkeret) from נָכַר (nakhar, “to know, to recognize”): “the one who is known [by the nations for her harlotries]” (M. Dahood, “Causal Beth and the Root NKR in Nahum 3.4,” Bib 52 [1971]: 395-96). The BHS editors suggest emending the MT, due to metathesis, to הַכֹּמֶרֶת (hakkomeret) from II כמר (“to ensnare”; HALOT 482 s.v. II כמר) which is related to Assyrian kamaru [A] (“to ensnare”): “The one who ensnares [nations].” The related nouns “snare; net” (מִכְמָר, mikhmar) and “net” (מִכְמֶרֶת, mikhmeret) are used as metaphors of the wicked destroying their victims (Ps 141:10; Isa 51:20; Hab 1:15, 16). This approach is adopted by NJPS: “who ensnared nations.” Others suggest emending to the Qal participle הַכֹּמֶרֶת from III כמר (“to destroy, to overthrow”; BDB 485 s.v. III כמר) related to Assyrian kamaru [B] (“to destroy; to annihilate”): “the one who destroys nations.” The MT may be retained due to strong external support (LXX and 4QpNah) and adequate internal support; the conjectural emendations are unnecessary.

tn Heb “sells.” Alternately, “enslaves”; or perhaps “deceives.” Most scholars derive the Qal participle הַמֹּכֶרֶת from מָכַר (“to sell, to betray”): “who sells nations.” When used in reference to people, this verb may denote three things: (1) to sell slaves or prisoners of war (Exod 21:8; Deut 21:14; 24:7; Joel 4:3, 6); (2) to sell off someone into the hands of the enemy, that is, to give someone entirely into their power (Exod 21:7; 22:2; Deut 32:30; Judg 2:14; 3:8; 4:2; 10:7; 1 Sam 12:9; Isa 50:1; Joel 4:8; Ps 44:13); and (3) to betray someone (possibly the meaning here in Nah 3:4?); see HALOT 581-82 s.v. I מכר; BDB 569 s.v. מָכַר. This is related to Assyrian makara (“to carry out trade; to make merchandise of”). Some English versions nuance הַמֹּכֶרֶת as “who sells nations” (KJV, NASB); others nuance it metonymically, “who enslaves nations” (NIV, NRSV). Thomas derives הַמֹּכֶרֶת from II מָכַר (“to deceive, to beguile, to betray”) which is related to Arabic makara (“to betray”): “who deceives the nations” (D. W. Thomas, “The Root mkr in Hebrew,” JTS 37 [1936]: 388-89; idem, “A Further Note on the Root mkr in Hebrew,” JTS 3 [1952]: 214).

tn Heb “the one who sells nations by her harlotries.”

tn Heb “and clans by her sorceries.”



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