Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Nahum 2:4

Context
NET ©

The chariots 1  race madly 2  through the streets, they rush back and forth 3  in the broad plazas; they look 4  like lightning bolts, 5  they dash here and there 6  like flashes of lightning. 7 

NIV ©

The chariots storm through the streets, rushing back and forth through the squares. They look like flaming torches; they dart about like lightning.

NASB ©

The chariots race madly in the streets, They rush wildly in the squares, Their appearance is like torches, They dash to and fro like lightning flashes.

NLT ©

The chariots race recklessly along the streets and through the squares, swift as lightning, flickering like torches.

MSG ©

The chariots pour into the streets. They fill the public squares, Flaming like torches in the sun, like lightning darting and flashing.

BBE ©

The war-carriages are rushing through the streets, pushing against one another in the wide ways, looking like burning lights, running like thunder-flames.

NRSV ©

The chariots race madly through the streets, they rush to and fro through the squares; their appearance is like torches, they dart like lightning.

NKJV ©

The chariots rage in the streets, They jostle one another in the broad roads; They seem like torches, They run like lightning.


KJV
The chariots
<07393>
shall rage
<01984> (8704)
in the streets
<02351>_,
they shall justle one against another
<08264> (8698)
in the broad ways
<07339>_:
they shall seem
<04758>
like torches
<03940>_,
they shall run
<07323> (8787)
like the lightnings
<01300>_.
{they: Heb. their show}
NASB ©
The chariots
<07393>
race
<01984>
madly
<01984>
in the streets
<02351>
, They rush
<08264>
wildly
<08264>
in the squares
<07339>
, Their appearance
<04758>
is like torches
<03940>
, They dash
<07323>
to and fro
<07323>
like lightning
<01300>
flashes
<01300>
.
HEBREW
wuuwry
<07323>
Myqrbk
<01300>
Mdyplk
<03940>
Nhyarm
<04758>
twbxrb
<07339>
Nwqsqtsy
<08264>
bkrh
<07393>
wllwhty
<01984>
twuwxb
<02351>
(2:4)
<2:5>
LXXM
(2:5) en
<1722
PREP
taiv
<3588
T-DPF
odoiv
<3598
N-DPF
kai
<2532
CONJ
sugcuyhsontai
<4797
V-FPI-3P
ta
<3588
T-APN
armata
<716
N-APN
kai
<2532
CONJ
sumplakhsontai {V-FPI-3P} en
<1722
PREP
taiv
<3588
T-DPF
plateiaiv
<4116
A-DPF
h
<3588
T-NSF
orasiv
<3706
N-NSF
autwn
<846
D-GPM
wv
<3739
CONJ
lampadev
<2985
N-NPF
purov
<4442
N-GSN
kai
<2532
CONJ
wv
<3739
CONJ
astrapai
<796
N-NPF
diatrecousai {V-PAPNP}
NET © [draft] ITL
The chariots
<07393>
race madly
<01984>
through the streets
<02351>
, they rush back and forth
<08264>
in the broad plazas
<07339>
; they look like
<04758>
lightning bolts
<03940>
, they dash here and there
<07323>
like flashes of lightning
<01300>
.
NET ©

The chariots 1  race madly 2  through the streets, they rush back and forth 3  in the broad plazas; they look 4  like lightning bolts, 5  they dash here and there 6  like flashes of lightning. 7 

NET © Notes

tn Heb “the chariot.” The Hebrew noun הָרֶכֶב (harekhev, “the chariot”) is a collective use of the singular, as indicated by the plural verb “[they] race madly” (see GKC 462 §145.b).

tn The Hitpolel imperfect יִתְהוֹלְלוּ (yitholÿlu, “they rush wildly”) is from the root III הלל (“to be foolish, to be senseless, to be insane”). The Hitpolel stem describes seemingly insane actions: “to pretend to be insane; to act like a madman” (1 Sam 21:14; Jer 25:16; 50:38; 51:7; see HALOT 249 s.v. III הלל). When used in military contexts, it describes the wild, furious action of war-chariots charging forward to attack the enemy (Jer 46:9). The Hitpolel stem is the equivalent to the Hitpael stem for geminate verbs (see IBHS 425-26 §26.1.1). The Hitpolel stem expresses energetic, intense, and rapid action; it gives special energy and movement to the verbal idea (J. Muilenburg, “Hebrew Rhetoric: Repetition and Style,” VTSup 1 [1953]: 101).

tn The Hitpalpel imperfect יִשְׁתַּקְשְׁקוּן (yishtaqshÿqun, “they rush back and forth”; see GKC 153 §55.g) is from שָׁקַק (shaqaq, “to rush upon; to rush forth”); cf. Prov 28:15; Isa 33:4; Joel 2:9 (HALOT 1009 s.v. I שׁקק). The Hitpalpel is the Hitpael stem for geminate verbs (IBHS 425-26 §26.1.1). The Hitpalpel stem gives special energy and movement to the verbal idea; it connotes intense, furious, and energetic action (e.g., Deut 9:20; Jer 5:22; see J. Muilenburg, “Hebrew Rhetoric: Repetition and Style,” VTSup 1 [1953]: 101). The nun ending on יִשְׁתַּקְשְׁקוּן may denote additional energy and emphasis (see IBHS 516-17 §31.7.1).

tn Heb “Their appearance is like.”

tn Or “like torches.” The Hebrew term לַפִּיד (lappid) often means “torch, flame” (Gen 15:17; Judg 7:16, 20; 15:4, 5; Isa 62:1; Ezek 1:13; Zech 12:6; Dan 10:6), but sometimes refers to “lightning bolts” (Exod 20:18; Job 12:5; see HALOT 533 s.v. לַפִּיד; BDB 542 s.v. לַפִּיד). Most English versions render this usage as “torches” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NJPS). However, the parallelism with כַּבְּרָקִים (kabbÿraqim, “like lightning flashes”) suggests that in this context כַּלַּפִּידִם (kalappidim) may be nuanced “like lightning bolts.”

tn Or “they flash here and there.” The Polel imperfect יְרוֹצֵצוּ (yirotsetsu, “they dash here and there”) is from the root רוּץ (ruts) which means “to run quickly” in reference to men (Gen 18:2; 2 Kgs 23:12; Prov 4:12) and “to gallop” in reference to horsemen (Joel 2:14). The Hiphil stem denotes “to drive off with haste” (Jer 49:19; 50:44). The Polel stem, which is used here, means “to race about swiftly; to flash by speedily; to run to and fro” (HALOT 1208 s.v. רוץ; BDB 930 s.v. רוּץ).

tn Or simply, “like lightning.” The term “lightning flash” (בָּרָק, baraq) is often used to compare the brightness of an object to the flash of lightning: the glory of Yahweh (Ezek 1:13), the splendor of an angel (Dan 10:6), the glitter of swords (Deut 32:41; Ezek 21:15; Nah 3:3; Hab 3:11), and the gleam of arrowheads (Job 20:25). It is also used as a figure (hypocatastasis) for speed, such as the swift destruction of an enemy (Zech 9:14). Perhaps both images are suggested here: the bright glitter of the chariots ( v. 4b) and the speed of the chariots as suggested by the verb “they dash here and there” (יְרוֹצֵצוּ, yÿrotsetsu, v. 5b).



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