Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Leviticus 17:11

Context
NET ©

for the life of every living thing 1  is in the blood. 2  So I myself have assigned it to you 3  on the altar to make atonement for your lives, for the blood makes atonement by means of the life. 4 

NIV ©

For the life of a creature is in the blood, and I have given it to you to make atonement for yourselves on the altar; it is the blood that makes atonement for one’s life.

NASB ©

‘For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood by reason of the life that makes atonement.’

NLT ©

for the life of any creature is in its blood. I have given you the blood so you can make atonement for your sins. It is the blood, representing life, that brings you atonement.

MSG ©

for the life of an animal is in the blood. I have provided the blood for you to make atonement for your lives on the Altar; it is the blood, the life, that makes atonement.

BBE ©

For the life of the flesh is in its blood; and I have given it to you on the altar to take away your sin: for it is the blood which makes free from sin because of the life in it.

NRSV ©

For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you for making atonement for your lives on the altar; for, as life, it is the blood that makes atonement.

NKJV ©

‘For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that makes atonement for the soul.’


KJV
For the life
<05315>
of the flesh
<01320>
[is] in the blood
<01818>_:
and I have given
<05414> (8804)
it to you upon the altar
<04196>
to make an atonement
<03722> (8763)
for your souls
<05315>_:
for it [is] the blood
<01818>
[that] maketh an atonement
<03722> (8762)
for the soul
<05315>_.
NASB ©
'For the life
<05315>
of the flesh
<01320>
is in the blood
<01818>
, and I have given
<05414>
it to you on the altar
<04196>
to make
<03722>
atonement
<03722>
for your souls
<05315>
; for it is the blood
<01818>
by reason of the life
<05315>
that makes
<03722>
atonement
<03722>
.'
HEBREW
rpky
<03722>
spnb
<05315>
awh
<01931>
Mdh
<01818>
yk
<03588>
Mkytspn
<05315>
le
<05921>
rpkl
<03722>
xbzmh
<04196>
le
<05921>
Mkl
<0>
wyttn
<05414>
ynaw
<0589>
awh
<01931>
Mdb
<01818>
rvbh
<01320>
spn
<05315>
yk (17:11)
<03588>
LXXM
h
<3588
T-NSF
gar
<1063
PRT
quch
<5590
N-NSF
pashv
<3956
A-GSF
sarkov
<4561
N-GSF
aima
<129
N-NSN
autou
<846
D-GSM
estin
<1510
V-PAI-3S
kai
<2532
CONJ
egw
<1473
P-NS
dedwka
<1325
V-RAI-1S
auto
<846
D-ASN
umin
<4771
P-DP
epi
<1909
PREP
tou
<3588
T-GSN
yusiasthriou
<2379
N-GSN
exilaskesyai {V-PMN} peri
<4012
PREP
twn
<3588
T-GPF
qucwn
<5590
N-GPF
umwn
<4771
P-GP
to
<3588
T-NSN
gar
<1063
PRT
aima
<129
N-NSN
autou
<846
D-GSM
anti
<473
PREP
thv
<3588
T-GSF
quchv
<5590
N-GSF
exilasetai {V-FMI-3S}
NET © [draft] ITL
for
<03588>
the life
<05315>
of every living
<01320>
thing is
<01931>
in the blood
<01818>
. So I myself
<0589>
have assigned
<05414>
it to you on
<05921>
the altar
<04196>
to make atonement
<03722>
for your lives
<05315>
, for
<03588>
the blood
<01818>
makes atonement
<03722>
by means of the life
<05315>
.
NET ©

for the life of every living thing 1  is in the blood. 2  So I myself have assigned it to you 3  on the altar to make atonement for your lives, for the blood makes atonement by means of the life. 4 

NET © Notes

tn Heb “the life of the flesh.” Here “flesh” stands for “every living thing,” that is, all creatures (cf. NIV, NRSV, NLT “every creature”; CEV “every living creature.”

tn Heb “for the soul/life (נֶפֶשׁ, nefesh) of the flesh, it is in the blood” (cf. the note of v. 10 above and v. 14 below). Although most modern English versions begin a new sentence in v. 11, “For the life of the flesh is in the blood” (see, e.g., NJPS, NASB, NIV, NRSV), the כִּי (ki, “for, because”) at the beginning of the verse suggests continuation from v. 10, as the rendering here indicates (see, e.g., NEB, NLT; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 261; and G. J. Wenham, Leviticus [NICOT], 239).

sn This verse is a well-known crux interpretum for blood atonement in the Bible. The close association between the blood and “the soul/life [נֶפֶשׁ] of the flesh [בָּשָׂר, basar]” (v. 11a) begins in Gen 9:2-5 (if not Gen 4:10-11), where the Lord grants man the eating of meat (i.e., the “flesh” of animals) but also issues a warning: “But flesh [בָּשָׂר] with its soul/life [נֶפֶשׁ], [which is] its blood, you shall not eat” (cf. G. J. Wenham, Genesis [WBC], 1:151 and 193). Unfortunately, the difficulty in translating נֶפֶשׁ consistently (see the note on v. 10 above) obscures the close connection between the (human) “person” in v. 10 and “the life” (of animals, 2 times) and “your (human) lives” in v. 11, all of which are renderings of נֶפֶשׁ. The basic logic of the passage is that (a) no נֶפֶשׁ should eat the blood when he eats the בָּשָׂר of an animal (v. 10) because (b) the נֶפֶשׁ of בָּשָׂר is identified with the blood that flows through and permeates it (v. 11a), and (c) the Lord himself has assigned (i.e., limited the use of) animal blood, that is, animal נֶפֶשׁ, to be the instrument or price of making atonement for the נֶפֶשׁ of people (v. 11b). See the detailed remarks and literature cited in R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:693-95, 697-98.

tn Heb “And I myself have given it to you.”

tn Heb “for the blood, it by (בְּ, bet preposition, “in”] the life makes atonement.” The interpretation of the preposition is pivotal here. Some scholars have argued that it is a bet of exchange; that is, “the blood makes atonement in exchange for the life [of the slaughtered animal]” (see R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:694-95, 697 for analysis and criticism of this view). It is more likely that, as in the previous clause (“your lives”), “life/soul” (נֶפֶשׁ, nefesh) here refers to the person who makes the offering, not the animal offered. The blood of the animal makes atonement for the person who offers it either “by means of” (instrumental bet) the “life/soul” of the animal, which it symbolizes or embodies (the meaning of the translation given here); or perhaps the blood of the animal functions as “the price” (bet of price) for ransoming the “life/soul” of the person.



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