Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Lamentations 1:9

Context
NET ©

ט (Tet) Her menstrual flow 1  has soiled 2  her clothing; 3  she did not consider 4  the consequences of her sin. 5  Her demise 6  was astonishing, 7  and there was no one to comfort her. She cried, “Look, 8  O Lord, on my 9  affliction because my enemy boasts!”

NIV ©

Her filthiness clung to her skirts; she did not consider her future. Her fall was astounding; there was none to comfort her. "Look, O LORD, on my affliction, for the enemy has triumphed."

NASB ©

Her uncleanness was in her skirts; She did not consider her future. Therefore she has fallen astonishingly; She has no comforter. "See, O LORD, my affliction, For the enemy has magnified himself!"

NLT ©

She defiled herself with immorality with no thought of the punishment that would follow. Now she lies in the gutter with no one to lift her out. "LORD, see my deep misery," she cries. "The enemy has triumphed."

MSG ©

She played fast and loose with life, she never considered tomorrow, and now she's crashed royally, with no one to hold her hand: "Look at my pain, O GOD! And how the enemy cruelly struts."

BBE ©

In her skirts were her unclean ways; she gave no thought to her end; and her fall has been a wonder; she has no comforter: see her sorrow, O Lord; for the attacker is lifted up.

NRSV ©

Her uncleanness was in her skirts; she took no thought of her future; her downfall was appalling, with none to comfort her. "O LORD, look at my affliction, for the enemy has triumphed!"

NKJV ©

Her uncleanness is in her skirts; She did not consider her destiny; Therefore her collapse was awesome; She had no comforter. "O LORD, behold my affliction, For the enemy is exalted!"


KJV
Her filthiness
<02932>
[is] in her skirts
<07757>_;
she remembereth
<02142> (8804)
not her last end
<0319>_;
therefore she came down
<03381> (8799)
wonderfully
<06382>_:
she had no comforter
<05162> (8764)_.
O LORD
<03068>_,
behold
<07200> (8798)
my affliction
<06040>_:
for the enemy
<0341> (8802)
hath magnified
<01431> (8689)
[himself].
NASB ©
Her uncleanness
<02932>
was in her skirts
<07757>
; She did not consider
<02142>
her future
<0319>
. Therefore she has fallen
<03381>
astonishingly
<06382>
; She has
<0369>
no
<0369>
comforter
<05162>
. "See
<07200>
, O LORD
<03068>
, my affliction
<06040>
, For the enemy
<0340>
has magnified
<01431>
himself!"
HEBREW
o
bywa
<0341>
lydgh
<01431>
yk
<03588>
yyne
<06040>
ta
<0853>
hwhy
<03068>
har
<07200>
hl
<0>
Mxnm
<05162>
Nya
<0369>
Myalp
<06382>
drtw
<03381>
htyrxa
<0319>
hrkz
<02142>
al
<03808>
hylwsb
<07757>
htamj (1:9)
<02932>
LXXM
akayarsia
<167
N-NSF
authv
<846
D-GSF
prov
<4314
PREP
podwn
<4228
N-GPM
authv
<846
D-GSF
ouk
<3364
ADV
emnhsyh
<3403
V-API-3S
escata
<2078
A-APN
authv
<846
D-GSF
kai
<2532
CONJ
katebibasen
<2601
V-AAI-3S
uperogka
<5246
A-APN
ouk
<3364
ADV
estin
<1510
V-PAI-3S
o
<3588
T-NSM
parakalwn
<3870
V-PAPNS
authn
<846
D-ASF
ide
<3708
V-AAD-2S
kurie
<2962
N-VSM
thn
<3588
T-ASF
tapeinwsin
<5014
N-ASF
mou
<1473
P-GS
oti
<3754
CONJ
emegalunyh
<3170
V-API-3S
ecyrov
<2190
A-NSM
NET © [draft] ITL
ט(Tet) Her menstrual flow
<02932>
has soiled
<02932>
her clothing
<07757>
; she did not
<03808>
consider
<02142>
the consequences
<0319>
of her sin. Her demise
<03381>
was astonishing
<06382>
, and there was no
<0369>
one to comfort
<05162>
her. She cried, “Look
<07200>
, O Lord
<03068>
, on my affliction
<06040>
because
<03588>
my enemy
<0341>
boasts
<01431>
!”
NET ©

ט (Tet) Her menstrual flow 1  has soiled 2  her clothing; 3  she did not consider 4  the consequences of her sin. 5  Her demise 6  was astonishing, 7  and there was no one to comfort her. She cried, “Look, 8  O Lord, on my 9  affliction because my enemy boasts!”

NET © Notes

tn Heb “uncleanness.” The noun טֻמְאָה (tumah, “uncleanness”) refers in general to the state of ritual uncleanness and specifically to (1) sexual uncleanness (Num 5:19); (2) filthy mass (Ezek 24:11; 2 Chr 29:16); (3) ritual uncleanness (Lev 16:16, 19; Ezek 22:15; 24:13; 36:25, 29; 39:24; Zech 13:2); (4) menstrual uncleanness (Lev 15:25, 26, 30; 18:19; Ezek 36:17); (5) polluted meat (Judg 13:7, 14). Here, Jerusalem is personified as a woman whose menstrual uncleanness has soiled even her own clothes; this is a picture of the consequences of the sin of Jerusalem: uncleanness = her sin, and soiling her own clothes = consequences of sin. The poet may also be mixing metaphors allowing various images (of shame) to circulate in the hearer’s mind, including rape and public exposure. By not again mentioning sin directly (a topic relatively infrequent in this book), the poet lays a general acknowledgment of sin in 1:8 alongside an exceptionally vivid picture of the horrific circumstances which have come to be. It is no simplistic explanation that sin merits such inhumane treatment. Instead 1:9 insists that no matter the legal implications of being guilty, the Lord should be motivated to aid Jerusalem (and therefore her people) because her obscene reality is so revolting.

tn Heb “her uncleanness is in her skirts.”

tn Heb “her skirts.” This term is a synecdoche of specific (skirts) for general (clothing).

tn The basic meaning of זָכַר (zakhar) is “to remember, call to mind” (HALOT 270 s.v. I זכר). Although it is often used in reference to recollection of past events or consideration of present situations, it also may mean “to consider, think about” the future outcome of conduct (e.g., Isa 47:7) (BDB 270 s.v. 5). The same term is used is 7a.

tn Heb “she did not consider her end.” The noun אַחֲרִית (’akharit, “end”) here refers to an outcome or the consequences of an action; in light of 1:8 here it is the consequence of sin or immoral behavior (Num 23:10; 24:20; Deut 32:20, 29; Job 8:7; Pss 37:37; 73:17; Prov 14:12; 23:32; 25:8; Eccl 7:8; Isa 46:10; 47:7; Jer 5:31; 17:11; Dan 12:8).

tc The MT reads וַתֵּרֶד (vattered) vav (ו) consecutive + Qal preterite 3rd person feminine singular from יָרַד (yarad, “to go down”). Symmachus καὶ κατήχθη (kai kathcqh, “and she was brought down”) and Vulgate deposita est use passive forms which might reflect וַתּוּרַד (vatturad, vav consecutive + Pual preterite 3rd person feminine singular from from יָרַד [yarad, “to go down”]). External evidence favors the MT (supported by all other ancient versions and medieval Hebrew mss); none of the other ancient versions preserve/reflect a passive form. Symmachus is known to have departed from a wooden literal translation (characteristic of Aquila) in favor of smooth and elegant Greek style. The second edition of the Latin Vulgate drew on Symmachus; thus, it is not an independent witness to the passive reading, but merely a secondary witness reflecting Symmachus. The MT is undoubtedly the original reading.

tn Heb “and she came down in an astonishing way” or “and she was brought down in an astonishing way.”

tn The noun פֶּלֶא (pele’) means not only “miracle, wonder” (BDB 810 s.v.) but “something unusual, astonishing” (HALOT 928 s.v.). The plural פְּלָאִים (pÿlaim, lit., “astonishments”) is an example of the plural of intensity: “very astonishing.” The noun functions as an adverbial accusative of manner; the nature of her descent shocks and astounds. Rendering פְּלָאִים וַתֵּרֶד (vattered pÿlaim) as “she has come down marvelously” (cf. BDB 810 s.v. 1 and KJV, ASV) is hardly appropriate; it is better to nuance it “in an astonishing way” (HALOT 928 s.v. 3) or simply “was astonishing.”

tn The words “she cried” do not appear in the Hebrew. They are added to indicate that personified Jerusalem is speaking.

tc The MT reads עָנְיִי (’onyi, “my affliction”) as reflected in all the ancient versions (LXX, Aramaic Targum, Latin Vulgate, Syriac Peshitta) and the medieval Hebrew mss. The Bohairic version and Ambrosius, however, read “her affliction,” which led the BHS editors to suggest a Vorlage of עָנְיָהּ (’onyah, “her affliction”). External evidence strongly favors the MT reading. The 3rd person feminine singular textual variant probably arose out of an attempt to harmonize this form with all the other 3rd person feminine singular forms in 1:1-11a. The MT is undoubtedly the original reading.

10 tn Heb “an enemy.” While it is understood that the enemy is Jerusalem’s, not using the pronoun in Hebrew leaves room to imply to God that the enemy is not only Jerusalem’s but also God’s.



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