Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Lamentations 1:8

Context
NET ©

ח (Khet) Jerusalem committed terrible sin; 1  therefore she became an object of scorn. 2  All who admired 3  her have despised her 4  because they have seen her nakedness. 5  She groans aloud 6  and turns away in shame. 7 

NIV ©

Jerusalem has sinned greatly and so has become unclean. All who honoured her despise her, for they have seen her nakedness; she herself groans and turns away.

NASB ©

Jerusalem sinned greatly, Therefore she has become an unclean thing. All who honored her despise her Because they have seen her nakedness; Even she herself groans and turns away.

NLT ©

Jerusalem has sinned greatly, so she has been tossed away like a filthy rag. All who once honored her now despise her, for they have seen her stripped naked and humiliated. All she can do is groan and hide her face.

MSG ©

Jerusalem, who outsinned the whole world, is an outcast. All who admired her despise her now that they see beneath the surface. Miserable, she groans and turns away in shame.

BBE ©

Great is the sin of Jerusalem; for this cause she has become an unclean thing: all those who gave her honour are looking down on her, because they have seen her shame: now truly, breathing out grief, she is turned back.

NRSV ©

Jerusalem sinned grievously, so she has become a mockery; all who honored her despise her, for they have seen her nakedness; she herself groans, and turns her face away.

NKJV ©

Jerusalem has sinned gravely, Therefore she has become vile. All who honored her despise her Because they have seen her nakedness; Yes, she sighs and turns away.


KJV
Jerusalem
<03389>
hath grievously
<02399>
sinned
<02398> (8804)_;
therefore she is removed
<05206>_:
all that honoured
<03513> (8764)
her despise
<02107> (8689)
her, because they have seen
<07200> (8804)
her nakedness
<06172>_:
yea, she sigheth
<0584> (8738)_,
and turneth
<07725> (8799)
backward
<0268>_.
{is...: Heb. is become a removing, or, wandering}
NASB ©
Jerusalem
<03389>
sinned
<02398>
greatly
<02399>
, Therefore
<05921>
<3651> she has become
<01961>
an unclean
<05206>
thing
<05206>
. All
<03605>
who honored
<03513>
her despise
<02151>
her Because
<03588>
they have seen
<07200>
her nakedness
<06172>
; Even
<01571>
she herself
<01931>
groans
<0584>
and turns
<07725>
away
<0268>
.
HEBREW
o
rwxa
<0268>
bstw
<07725>
hxnan
<0584>
ayh
<01931>
Mg
<01571>
htwre
<06172>
war
<07200>
yk
<03588>
hwlyzh
<02107>
hydbkm
<03513>
lk
<03605>
htyh
<01961>
hdynl
<05206>
Nk
<03651>
le
<05921>
Mlswry
<03389>
hajx
<02398>
ajx (1:8)
<02399>
LXXM
amartian
<266
N-ASF
hmarten
<264
V-AAI-3S
ierousalhm
<2419
N-PRI
dia
<1223
PREP
touto
<3778
D-ASN
eiv
<1519
PREP
salon
<4535
N-ASM
egeneto
<1096
V-AMI-3S
pantev
<3956
A-NPM
oi
<3588
T-NPM
doxazontev
<1392
V-PAPNP
authn
<846
D-ASF
etapeinwsan
<5013
V-AAI-3P
authn
<846
D-ASF
eidon
<3708
V-AAI-3P
gar
<1063
PRT
thn
<3588
T-ASF
aschmosunhn
<808
N-ASF
authv
<846
D-GSF
kai
<2532
CONJ
ge
<1065
PRT
auth
<846
D-NSF
stenazousa
<4727
V-PAPNS
kai
<2532
CONJ
apestrafh
<654
V-API-3S
opisw
<3694
ADV
NET © [draft] ITL
ח(Khet) Jerusalem
<03389>
committed terrible
<02399>
sin
<02398>
; therefore
<03651>
she became
<01961>
an object of scorn
<05206>
. All
<03605>
who admired
<03513>
her have despised
<02107>
her because
<03588>
they have seen
<07200>
her nakedness
<06172>
. She groans
<0584>
aloud and turns away
<07725>
in shame
<0268>
.
NET ©

ח (Khet) Jerusalem committed terrible sin; 1  therefore she became an object of scorn. 2  All who admired 3  her have despised her 4  because they have seen her nakedness. 5  She groans aloud 6  and turns away in shame. 7 

NET © Notes

tc The MT reads חֵטְא (khet’, “sin”), but the BHS editors suggest the vocalization חָטֹא (khato’, “sin”), Qal infinitive absolute.

tn Heb “she has become an object of head-nodding” (לְנִידָה הָיָתָה, lÿniydah hayatah). This reflects the ancient Near Eastern custom of shaking the head in scorn (e.g., Jer 18:16; Ps 44:15 [HT 14]), hence the translation “object of scorn.” There is debate whether נִידָה (nidah) means (1) “object of head-shaking” from נוּד (nud, “to shake,” BDB 626-27 s.v. נוּד); (2) “unclean thing” from נָדַה (nadah, “to be impure”); or (3) “wanderer” from נָדַד (nadad, “to wander,” BDB 622 s.v. I נָדַד). The LXX and Rashi connected it to נָדַד (nadad, “to wander”); however, several important early Greek recensions (Aquila and Symmachus) and Syriac translated it as “unclean thing.” The modern English versions are split: (1) “unclean thing” (NASB); “unclean” (NIV); (2) “a mockery” (NRSV).

sn The Piel participle of כָּבֵד (kaved) is infrequent and usually translated formulaically as those who honor someone. The feminine nuance may be best represented as “her admirers have despised her.”

tn The verb הִזִּילוּהָ (hizziluha) is generally understood as a rare form of Hiphil perfect 3rd person common plural + 3rd person feminine singular suffix from I זָלַל (zalal, “to despise”): “they despise her.” This follows the I nun (ן) pattern with daghesh (dot) in zayin (ז) rather than the expected geminate pattern הִזִילּוּהָ (hizilluha) with daghesh in lamed (ל) (GKC 178-79 §67.l).

sn The expression have seen her nakedness is a common metaphor to describe the plunder and looting of a city by a conquering army, probably drawn on the ignominious and heinous custom of raping the women of a conquered city as well.

tn Heb “groan” or “sigh.” The verb אָנַח (’anakh, appearing only in Niphal) means “sigh” (BDB 58 s.v. 1) or “groan” (HALOT 70-71 s.v.) as an expression of grief (Prov 29:2; Isa 24:7; Lam 1:4, 8; Ezek 9:4; 21:11). The word גַּם (gam) is usually a particle meaning “also,” but has been shown from Ugaritic to have the meaning “aloud.” See T. McDaniel, “Philological Studies in Lamentations, I-II,” Bib 49 (1968): 31-32.

tn Heb “and turns backward.”



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