Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Lamentations 1:3

Context
NET ©

ג (Gimel) Judah 1  has departed into exile under 2  affliction and harsh oppression. 3  She 4  lives among the nations; she has found no resting place. All who pursued her overtook her in 5  narrow straits. 6 

NIV ©

After affliction and harsh labour, Judah has gone into exile. She dwells among the nations; she finds no resting place. All who pursue her have overtaken her in the midst of her distress.

NASB ©

Judah has gone into exile under affliction And under harsh servitude; She dwells among the nations, But she has found no rest; All her pursuers have overtaken her In the midst of distress.

NLT ©

Judah has been led away into captivity, afflicted and enslaved. She lives among foreign nations and has no place of rest. Her enemies have chased her down, and she has nowhere to turn.

MSG ©

After years of pain and hard labor, Judah has gone into exile. She camps out among the nations, never feels at home. Hunted by all, she's stuck between a rock and a hard place.

BBE ©

Judah has been taken away as a prisoner because of trouble and hard work; her living-place is among the nations, there is no rest for her: all her attackers have overtaken her in a narrow place.

NRSV ©

Judah has gone into exile with suffering and hard servitude; she lives now among the nations, and finds no resting place; her pursuers have all overtaken her in the midst of her distress.

NKJV ©

Judah has gone into captivity, Under affliction and hard servitude; She dwells among the nations, She finds no rest; All her persecutors overtake her in dire straits.


KJV
Judah
<03063>
is gone into captivity
<01540> (8804)
because of affliction
<06040>_,
and because of great
<07230>
servitude
<05656>_:
she dwelleth
<03427> (8804)
among the heathen
<01471>_,
she findeth
<04672> (8804)
no rest
<04494>_:
all her persecutors
<07291> (8802)
overtook
<05381> (8689)
her between the straits
<04712>_.
{because of great...: Heb. for the greatness of servitude}
NASB ©
Judah
<03063>
has gone
<01540>
into exile
<01540>
under
<04480>
affliction
<06040>
And under
<04480>
harsh
<07230>
servitude
<05656>
; She dwells
<03427>
among the nations
<01471>
, But she has found
<04672>
no
<03808>
rest
<04494>
; All
<03605>
her pursuers
<07291>
have overtaken
<05381>
her In the midst
<0996>
of distress
<04712>
.
HEBREW
o
Myrumh
<04712>
Nyb
<0996>
hwgyvh
<05381>
hypdr
<07291>
lk
<03605>
xwnm
<04494>
haum
<04672>
al
<03808>
Mywgb
<01471>
hbsy
<03427>
ayh
<01931>
hdbe
<05656>
brmw
<07230>
ynem
<06040>
hdwhy
<03063>
htlg (1:3)
<01540>
LXXM
metwkisyh
<3351
V-API-3S
h
<3588
T-NSF
ioudaia
<2449
N-NSF
apo
<575
PREP
tapeinwsewv
<5014
N-GSF
authv
<846
D-GSF
kai
<2532
CONJ
apo
<575
PREP
plhyouv
<4128
N-GSN
douleiav
<1397
N-GSF
authv
<846
D-GSF
ekayisen
<2523
V-AAI-3S
en
<1722
PREP
eynesin
<1484
N-DPN
ouc
<3364
ADV
euren
<2147
V-AAI-3S
anapausin
<372
N-ASF
pantev
<3956
A-NPM
oi
<3588
T-NPM
katadiwkontev
<2614
V-PAPNP
authn
<846
D-ASF
katelabon
<2638
V-AAI-3P
authn
<846
D-ASF
ana
<303
PREP
meson
<3319
A-ASM
twn
<3588
T-GPM
ylibontwn
<2346
V-PAPGP
NET © [draft] ITL
ג(Gimel) Judah
<03063>
has departed into exile under affliction
<06040>
and harsh
<05656>
oppression
<07230>
. She
<01931>
lives
<03427>
among the nations
<01471>
; she
<05381>
has found
<04672>
no
<03808>
resting place
<04494>
. All
<03605>
who pursued
<07291>
her overtook
<05381>
her in narrow
<0996>
straits
<04712>
.
NET ©

ג (Gimel) Judah 1  has departed into exile under 2  affliction and harsh oppression. 3  She 4  lives among the nations; she has found no resting place. All who pursued her overtook her in 5  narrow straits. 6 

NET © Notes

tn Heb “Judah.” The term “Judah” is a synecdoche of nation (= Judah) for the inhabitants of the nation (= people).

tn There is a debate over the function of the preposition מִן (min): (1) temporal sense: “after” (HALOT 598 s.v. 2.c; BDB 581 s.v. 4.b) (e.g., Gen 4:3; 38:24; Josh 23:1; Judg 11:4; 14:8; Isa 24:22; Ezek 38:8; Hos 6:2) is adopted by one translation: “After affliction and harsh labor, Judah has gone into exile” (NIV). (2) causal sense: “because” (HALOT 598 s.v. 6; BDB 580 s.v. 2.f) (e.g., Isa 5:13) is adopted by many English versions: “Judah has gone into exile because of misery and harsh oppression/servitude” (cf. KJV, NKJV, RSV, NRSV, NJPS). (3) instrumentality: “by, through” (BDB 579 s.v. 2.e): “Judah has gone into exile under affliction, and under harsh servitude” (NASB). The issue here is whether this verse states that Judah went into exile after suffering a long period of trouble and toil, or that Judah went into exile because of the misery and affliction that the populace suffered under the hands of the Babylonians. For fuller treatment of this difficult syntactical problem, see D. R. Hillers, Lamentations (AB), 6-7.

tn Heb “great servitude.” The noun עֲבֹדָה (’avodah, “servitude”) refers to the enforced labor and suffering inflicted upon conquered peoples who are subjugated into slavery (Exod 1:14; 2:23; 5:9, 11; 6:9; Deut 26:6; 1 Kgs 12:4; 1 Chr 26:30; 2 Chr 10:4; 12:8; Isa 14:3; Lam 1:3).

tn The antecedent of “she” is “Judah,” which functions as a synecdoche of nation (= Judah) for the inhabitants of the nation (= people). Thus, “she” (= Judah) is tantamount to “they” (= former inhabitants of Judah).

tn The preposition בִּין (bin) is used in reference to a location: “between” (BDB 107 s.v. 1). The phrase בִּין הַמְּצָרִים (bin hammÿtsarim, “between the narrow places”) is unparalleled elsewhere in the Hebrew scriptures; however, this line is paraphrased in “The Thanksgiving Psalm” from Qumran (Hodayoth = 1QH v 29) which adds the phrase “so I could not get away.” Following the interpretation of this line at Qumran, it describes a futile attempt to flee from the enemies in narrow straits which thwarted a successful escape.

tn Heb “distresses.” The noun מֵצַר (metsar, “distress”) occurs only here and in Ps 118:5 (NIV, “anguish”). Here, the plural form מְצָרִים (mÿtsarim, lit., “distresses”) is an example of the plural of intensity: “intense distress.” The phrase בִּין הַמְּצָרִים (bin hammÿtsarim, “between the narrow places”) is unparalleled elsewhere in the Hebrew scriptures; however, this line is paraphrased in “The Thanksgiving Psalm” from Qumran (Hodayoth = 1QH v 29) which adds the phrase “so I could not get away.” Following the interpretation of this line at Qumran, it describes a futile attempt to flee from the enemies in narrow straits which thwarted a successful escape.



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