Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Lamentations 1:10

Context
NET ©

י (Yod) An enemy grabbed 1  all her valuables. 2  Indeed she watched in horror 3  as Gentiles 4  invaded her holy temple 5  – those whom you 6  had commanded: “They must not enter 7  your assembly place.” 8 

NIV ©

The enemy laid hands on all her treasures; she saw pagan nations enter her sanctuary—those you had forbidden to enter your assembly.

NASB ©

The adversary has stretched out his hand Over all her precious things, For she has seen the nations enter her sanctuary, The ones whom You commanded That they should not enter into Your congregation.

NLT ©

The enemy has plundered her completely, taking everything precious that she owns. She has seen foreigners violate her sacred Temple, the place the LORD had forbidden them to enter.

MSG ©

The enemy reached out to take all her favorite things. She watched as pagans barged into her Sanctuary, those very people for whom you posted orders: KEEP OUT: THIS ASSEMBLY OFF-LIMITS.

BBE ©

The hand of her hater is stretched out over all her desired things; for she has seen that the nations have come into her holy place, about whom you gave orders that they were not to come into the meeting of your people.

NRSV ©

Enemies have stretched out their hands over all her precious things; she has even seen the nations invade her sanctuary, those whom you forbade to enter your congregation.

NKJV ©

The adversary has spread his hand Over all her pleasant things; For she has seen the nations enter her sanctuary, Those whom You commanded Not to enter Your assembly.


KJV
The adversary
<06862>
hath spread out
<06566> (8804)
his hand
<03027>
upon all her pleasant things
<04261>_:
for she hath seen
<07200> (8804)
[that] the heathen
<01471>
entered
<0935> (8804)
into her sanctuary
<04720>_,
whom thou didst command
<06680> (8765)
[that] they should not enter
<0935> (8799)
into thy congregation
<06951>_.
{pleasant: or, desirable}
NASB ©
The adversary
<06862>
has stretched
<06566>
out his hand
<03027>
Over
<05921>
all
<03605>
her precious
<04261>
things
<04261>
, For she has seen
<07200>
the nations
<01471>
enter
<0935>
her sanctuary
<04720>
, The ones whom
<0834>
You commanded
<06680>
That they should not enter
<0935>
into Your congregation
<06951>
.
HEBREW
o
Kl
<0>
lhqb
<06951>
waby
<0935>
al
<03808>
htywu
<06680>
rsa
<0834>
hsdqm
<04720>
wab
<0935>
Mywg
<01471>
htar
<07200>
yk
<03588>
hydmxm
<04261>
lk
<03605>
le
<05921>
ru
<06862>
vrp
<06566>
wdy (1:10)
<03027>
LXXM
ceira
<5495
N-ASF
autou
<846
D-GSM
exepetasen {V-AAI-3S} ylibwn
<2346
V-PAPNS
epi
<1909
PREP
panta
<3956
A-APN
ta
<3588
T-APN
epiyumhmata {N-APN} authv
<846
D-GSF
eiden
<3708
V-AAI-3S
gar
<1063
PRT
eynh
<1484
N-APN
eiselyonta
<1525
V-AAPAP
eiv
<1519
PREP
to
<3588
T-ASN
agiasma {N-ASN} authv
<846
D-GSF
a
<3739
R-APN
eneteilw
<1781
V-AMI-2S
mh
<3165
ADV
eiselyein
<1525
V-AAN
auta
<846
D-APN
eiv
<1519
PREP
ekklhsian
<1577
N-ASF
sou
<4771
P-GS
NET © [draft] ITL
י(Yod
<06566>
) An enemy
<06862>
grabbed all
<03605>
her valuables
<04261>
. Indeed
<03588>
she watched
<07200>
in horror as Gentiles
<01471>
invaded
<0935>
her holy temple
<04720>
– those whom
<0834>
you had commanded
<06680>
: “They must not
<03808>
enter
<0935>
your assembly
<06951>
place.”
NET ©

י (Yod) An enemy grabbed 1  all her valuables. 2  Indeed she watched in horror 3  as Gentiles 4  invaded her holy temple 5  – those whom you 6  had commanded: “They must not enter 7  your assembly place.” 8 

NET © Notes

tn Heb “stretched out his hand.” The war imagery is of seizure of property; the anthropomorphic element pictures rape. This is an idiom that describes greedy actions (BDB 831 s.v. פָרַשׂ), meaning “to seize” (HALOT 976 s.v. 2).

tc The Kethib is written מַחֲמוֹדֵּיהֶם (makhamodehem, “her desired things”); the Qere and many medieval Hebrew mss read מַחֲמַדֵּיהֶם (makhamaddehem, “her desirable things”). The Qere reading should be adopted.

tn Heb “all her desirable things.” The noun מַחְמָד (makhmad, “desirable thing”) refers to valuable possessions, such as gold and silver which people desire (e.g., Ezra 8:27). This probably refers, not to the valuable possessions of Jerusalem in general, but to the sacred objects in the temple in particular, as suggested by the rest of the verse. For the anthropomorphic image compare Song 5:16.

tn Heb “she watched” or “she saw.” The verb רָאָה (raah, “to see”) has a broad range of meanings, including “to see” a spectacle causing grief (Gen 21:16; 44:34; Num 11:15; 2 Kgs 22:20; 2 Chr 34:28; Esth 8:6) or abhorrence (Isa 66:24). The words “in horror” are added to “she watched” to bring out this nuance.

sn The syntax of the sentence is interrupted by the insertion of the following sentence, “they invaded…,” then continued with “whom…” The disruption of the syntax is a structural device intended to help convey the shock of the situation.

tn Heb “her sanctuary.” The term מִקְדָּשָׁהּ (miqdashah, “her sanctuary”) refers to the temple. Anthropomorphically, translating as “her sacred place” would also allow for the rape imagery.

sn Lam 1-2 has two speaking voices: a third person voice reporting the horrific reality of Jerusalem’s suffering and Jerusalem’s voice. See W. F. Lanahan, “The Speaking Voice in the Book of Lamentations” JBL 93 (1974): 41-49. The reporting voice has been addressing the listener, referring to the Lord in the third person. Here he switches to a second person address to God, also changing the wording of the following command to second person. The revulsion of the Reporter is so great that he is moved to address God directly.

tn Heb “enter.” The Hebrew term בּוֹא (bo’) is also a sexual metaphor.

tn The noun קָהָל (qahal, “assembly”) does not refer here to the collective group of people assembled to worship the Lord, but to the place of their assembly: the temple. This is an example of a synecdoche of the people contained (= assembly) for the container (= temple). The intent is to make the violation feel more personal than someone walking into a building.

sn This is a quotation from Deut 23:3, “No Ammonite or Moabite or any of his descendants may enter the assembly of the Lord, even down to the tenth generation.” Jeremiah applies this prohibition against Ammonites and Moabites to the Babylonians who ransacked and destroyed the temple in 587/586 b.c. This hermeneutical move may be explained on the basis of synecdoche of species (= Ammonites and Moabites) for general (= unconverted Gentiles as a whole). On a different note, the prohibition forbidding Ammonites and Moabites from entering the “assembly” (קָהָל, qahal, Deut 23:2-8) did not disallow Gentile proselytes from converting to Yahwism or from living within the community (= assembled body) of Israel. For example, Ruth the Moabitess abandoned the worship of Moabite gods and embraced Yahweh, then was welcomed into the community of Bethlehem in Judah (Ruth 1:15-22) and even incorporated into the lineage leading to King David (Ruth 4:18-22). This Deuteronomic law did not disallow such genuine conversions of repentant faith toward Yahweh, nor their incorporation into the life of the Israelite community. Nor did it discourage Gentiles from offering sacrifices to the Lord (Num 15:15-16). Rather, it prohibited Gentiles from entering into the tabernacle/temple (= place of assembly) of Israel. This is clear from the reaction of the post-exilic community when it realized that Deut 23:3-5 had been violated by Tobiah the Ammonite who had been given living quarters in the temple precincts (Neh 13:1-9). This is also reflected in the days of the Second Temple when Gentile proselytes were allowed to enter the “court of the Gentiles” in Herod’s temple, but were forbidden further access into the inner temple precincts.



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