Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Joel 1:4

Context
NET ©

What the gazam-locust left the ‘arbeh-locust consumed, 1  what the ‘arbeh-locust left the yeleq-locust consumed, and what the yeleq-locust left the hasil-locust consumed! 2 

NIV ©

What the locust swarm has left the great locusts have eaten; what the great locusts have left the young locusts have eaten; what the young locusts have left other locusts have eaten.

NASB ©

What the gnawing locust has left, the swarming locust has eaten; And what the swarming locust has left, the creeping locust has eaten; And what the creeping locust has left, the stripping locust has eaten.

NLT ©

After the cutting locusts finished eating the crops, the swarming locusts took what was left! After them came the hopping locusts, and then the stripping locusts, too!

MSG ©

What the chewing locust left, the gobbling locust ate; What the gobbling locust left, the munching locust ate; What the munching locust left, the chomping locust ate.

BBE ©

What the worm did not make a meal of, has been taken by the locust; and what the locust did not take, has been food for the plant-worm; and what the plant-worm did not take, has been food for the field-fly.

NRSV ©

What the cutting locust left, the swarming locust has eaten. What the swarming locust left, the hopping locust has eaten, and what the hopping locust left, the destroying locust has eaten.

NKJV ©

What the chewing locust left, the swarming locust has eaten; What the swarming locust left, the crawling locust has eaten; And what the crawling locust left, the consuming locust has eaten.


KJV
That which the palmerworm
<01501>
hath left
<03499>
hath the locust
<0697>
eaten
<0398> (8804)_;
and that which the locust
<0697>
hath left
<03499>
hath the cankerworm
<03218>
eaten
<0398> (8804)_;
and that which the cankerworm
<03218>
hath left
<03499>
hath the caterpiller
<02625>
eaten
<0398> (8804)_.
{That which the palmerworm...: Heb. The residue of the palmerworm}
NASB ©
What
<03499>
the gnawing
<01501>
locust
<01501>
has left
<03499>
, the swarming
<0697>
locust
<0697>
has eaten
<0398>
; And what
<03499>
the swarming
<0697>
locust
<0697>
has left
<03499>
, the creeping
<03218>
locust
<03218>
has eaten
<0398>
; And what
<03499>
the creeping
<03218>
locust
<03218>
has left
<03499>
, the stripping
<02625>
locust
<02625>
has eaten
<0398>
.
HEBREW
lyoxh
<02625>
lka
<0398>
qlyh
<03218>
rtyw
<03499>
qlyh
<03218>
lka
<0398>
hbrah
<0697>
rtyw
<03499>
hbrah
<0697>
lka
<0398>
Mzgh
<01501>
rty (1:4)
<03499>
LXXM
ta
<3588
T-APN
kataloipa
<2645
A-APN
thv
<3588
T-GSF
kamphv {N-GSF} katefagen
<2719
V-AAI-3S
h
<3588
T-NSF
akriv
<200
N-NSF
kai
<2532
CONJ
ta
<3588
T-APN
kataloipa
<2645
A-APN
thv
<3588
T-GSF
akridov
<200
N-GSF
katefagen
<2719
V-AAI-3S
o
<3588
T-NSM
broucov {N-NSM} kai
<2532
CONJ
ta
<3588
T-APN
kataloipa
<2645
A-APN
tou
<3588
T-GSM
broucou {N-GSM} katefagen
<2719
V-AAI-3S
h
<3588
T-NSF
erusibh {N-NSF}
NET © [draft] ITL
What the gazam-locust left the ‘arbeh-locust
<01501>
consumed
<0398>
, what the ‘arbeh-locust
<0697>

<0697>
left the yeleq-locust
<03218>
consumed
<0398>
, and what the yeleq-locust
<03218>
left the hasil-locust
<02625>
consumed
<0398>
!
NET ©

What the gazam-locust left the ‘arbeh-locust consumed, 1  what the ‘arbeh-locust left the yeleq-locust consumed, and what the yeleq-locust left the hasil-locust consumed! 2 

NET © Notes

tn Heb “eaten.” This verb is repeated three times in v. 4 to emphasize the total devastation of the crops by this locust invasion.

tn The four Hebrew terms used in this verse are of uncertain meaning. English translations show a great deal of variation in dealing with these: (1) For ָגּזָם (gazam) KJV has “palmerworm,” NEB “locust,” NAB “cutter”, NASB “gnawing locust,” NIV “locust swarm,” NKJV “chewing locust,” NRSV, NLT “cutting locust(s),” NIrV “giant locusts”; (2) for אַרְבֶּה (’arbeh) KJV has “locust,” NEB “swarm,” NAB “locust swarm,” NASB, NKJV, NRSV, NLT “swarming locust(s),” NIV “great locusts,” NIrV “common locusts”; (3) for יֶלֶק (yeleq) KJV has “cankerworm,” NEB “hopper,” NAB “grasshopper,” NASB “creeping locust,” NIV, NIrV “young locusts,” NKJV “crawling locust,” NRSV, NLT “hopping locust(s)”; (4) for חָסִיל (khasil) KJV has “caterpillar,” NEB “grub,” NAB “devourer,” NASB, NLT “stripping locust(s),” NIV, NIrV “other locusts,” NKJV “consuming locust,” NRSV “destroying locust.” It is debated whether the Hebrew terms describe different species of locusts or similar insects or different developmental stages of the same species, or are virtual synonyms. While the last seems more likely, given the uncertainty over their exact meaning, the present translation has transliterated the Hebrew terms in combination with the word “locust.”

sn Four different words for “locust” are used in this verse. Whether these words represent different life-stages of the locusts, or whether virtual synonyms are being used to underscore the severity of damage caused by the relentless waves of locust invasion, is not entirely certain. The latter seems more likely. Many interpreters have understood the locust plagues described here to be symbolic of invading armies that will devastate the land, but the symbolism could also work the other way, with real plagues of locusts described in the following verses as an invading army.



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