Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Isaiah 9:6

Context
NET ©

For a child has been 1  born to us, a son has been given to us. He shoulders responsibility and is called: 2  Extraordinary Strategist, 3  Mighty God, 4  Everlasting Father, 5  Prince of Peace. 6 

NIV ©

For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.

NASB ©

For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us; And the government will rest on His shoulders; And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace.

NLT ©

For a child is born to us, a son is given to us. And the government will rest on his shoulders. These will be his royal titles: Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.

MSG ©

For a child has been born--for us! the gift of a son--for us! He'll take over the running of the world. His names will be: Amazing Counselor, Strong God, Eternal Father, Prince of Wholeness.

BBE ©

For to us a child has come, to us a son is given; and the government has been placed in his hands; and he has been named Wise Guide, Strong God, Father for ever, Prince of Peace.

NRSV ©

For a child has been born for us, a son given to us; authority rests upon his shoulders; and he is named Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.

NKJV ©

For unto us a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.


KJV
For unto us a child
<03206>
is born
<03205> (8795)_,
unto us a son
<01121>
is given
<05414> (8738)_:
and the government
<04951>
shall be upon his shoulder
<07926>_:
and his name
<08034>
shall be called
<07121> (8799)
Wonderful
<06382>_,
Counsellor
<03289> (8802)_,
The mighty
<01368>
God
<0410>_,
The everlasting
<05703>
Father
<01>_,
The Prince
<08269>
of Peace
<07965>_.
NASB ©
For a child
<03206>
will be born
<03205>
to us, a son
<01121>
will be given
<05414>
to us; And the government
<04951>
will rest
<01961>
on His shoulders
<07926>
; And His name
<08034>
will be called
<07121>
Wonderful
<06382>
Counselor
<03289>
, Mighty
<01368>
God
<0410>
, Eternal
<05703>
Father
<01>
, Prince
<08269>
of Peace
<07965>
.
HEBREW
Mwls
<07965>
rv
<08269>
deyba
<05703>
rwbg
<01368>
la
<0410>
Uewy
<03289>
alp
<06382>
wms
<08034>
arqyw
<07121>
wmks
<07926>
le
<05921>
hrvmh
<04951>
yhtw
<01961>
wnl
<0>
Ntn
<05414>
Nb
<01121>
wnl
<0>
dly
<03205>
dly
<03206>
yk
<03588>
(9:6)
<9:5>
LXXM
(9:5) oti
<3754
CONJ
paidion
<3813
N-ASN
egennhyh
<1080
V-API-3S
hmin
<1473
P-DP
uiov
<5207
N-NSM
kai
<2532
CONJ
edoyh
<1325
V-API-3S
hmin
<1473
P-DP
ou
<3739
R-GSM
h
<3588
T-NSF
arch
<746
N-NSF
egenhyh
<1096
V-API-3S
epi
<1909
PREP
tou
<3588
T-GSM
wmou
<3676
N-GSM
autou
<846
D-GSM
kai
<2532
CONJ
kaleitai
<2564
V-PMI-3S
to
<3588
T-ASN
onoma
<3686
N-ASN
autou
<846
D-GSM
megalhv
<3173
A-GSF
boulhv
<1012
N-GSF
aggelov
<32
N-NSM
egw
<1473
P-NS
gar
<1063
PRT
axw
<71
V-FAI-1S
eirhnhn
<1515
N-ASF
epi
<1909
PREP
touv
<3588
T-APM
arcontav
<758
N-APM
eirhnhn
<1515
N-ASF
kai
<2532
CONJ
ugieian {N-ASF} autw
<846
D-DSM
NET © [draft] ITL
For
<03588>
a child
<03206>
has been born
<03205>
to us, a son
<01121>
has been given
<05414>
to us. He shoulders
<07926>
responsibility
<04951>
and is called
<07121>
: Extraordinary
<06382>
Strategist
<03289>
, Mighty
<01368>
God
<0410>
, Everlasting
<05703>
Father, Prince
<08269>
of Peace
<07965>
.
NET ©

For a child has been 1  born to us, a son has been given to us. He shoulders responsibility and is called: 2  Extraordinary Strategist, 3  Mighty God, 4  Everlasting Father, 5  Prince of Peace. 6 

NET © Notes

tn The Hebrew perfect (translated “has been born” and “has been given”) is used here as the prophet takes a rhetorical stance in the future. See the note at 9:1.

tn Or “and dominion was on his shoulders and he called his name.” The prefixed verbs with vav (ו) consecutive are used with the same rhetorical sense as the perfects in v. 6a. See the preceding note. There is great debate over the syntactical structure of the verse. No subject is indicated for the verb “he called.” If all the titles that follow are ones given to the king, then the subject of the verb must be indefinite, “one calls.” However, some have suggested that one to three of the titles that follow refer to God, not the king. For example, the traditional punctuation of the Hebrew text suggests the translation, “and the Extraordinary Strategist, the Mighty God calls his name, ‘Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.’”

tn Some have seen two titles here (“Wonderful” and “Counselor,” cf. KJV, ASV). However, the pattern of the following three titles (each contains two elements) and the use of the roots פָּלַא (pala’) and יָעַץ (yaats) together in Isa 25:1 (cf. כִּי עָשִׂיתָ פֶּלֶא עֵצוֹת מֵרָחוֹק אֱמוּנָה אֹמֶן) and 28:29 (cf. הִפְלִיא עֵצָה) suggest otherwise. The term יוֹעֵץ (yoets) could be taken as appositional (genitive or otherwise) of species (“a wonder, i.e., a wonder as a counselor,” cf. NAB “Wonder-Counselor”) or as a substantival participle for which פָּלַא provides the direct object (“one who counsels wonders”). יוֹעֵץ is used as a royal title elsewhere (cf. Mic 4:9). Here it probably refers to the king’s ability to devise military strategy, as suggested by the context (cf. vv. 3-4 and the following title אֵל גִּבּוֹר, ’el gibor). In Isa 11:2 (also a description of this king) עֵצָה (’etsah) is linked with גְּבוּרָה (gÿvurah, the latter being typically used of military might, cf. BDB 150 s.v.). Note also עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה לַמִּלְחָמָה in Isa 36:5. פֶּלֶא (pele’) is typically used of God (cf. however Lam 1:9). Does this suggest the deity of the messianic ruler? The NT certainly teaches he is God, but did Isaiah necessarily have this in mind over 700 years before his birth? Since Isa 11:2 points out that this king will receive the spirit of the Lord, which will enable him to counsel, it is possible to argue that the king’s counsel is “extraordinary” because it finds its source in the divine spirit. Thus this title does not necessarily suggest that the ruler is deity.

tn גִּבּוֹר (gibbor) is probably an attributive adjective (“mighty God”), though one might translate “God is a warrior” or “God is mighty.” Scholars have interpreted this title is two ways. A number of them have argued that the title portrays the king as God’s representative on the battlefield, whom God empowers in a supernatural way (see J. H. Hayes and S. A. Irvine, Isaiah, 181-82). They contend that this sense seems more likely in the original context of the prophecy. They would suggest that having read the NT, we might in retrospect interpret this title as indicating the coming king’s deity, but it is unlikely that Isaiah or his audience would have understood the title in such a bold way. Ps 45:6 addresses the Davidic king as “God” because he ruled and fought as God’s representative on earth. Ancient Near Eastern art and literature picture gods training kings for battle, bestowing special weapons, and intervening in battle. According to Egyptian propaganda, the Hittites described Rameses II as follows: “No man is he who is among us, It is Seth great-of-strength, Baal in person; Not deeds of man are these his doings, They are of one who is unique” (See Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, 2:67). According to proponents of this view, Isa 9:6 probably envisions a similar kind of response when friends and foes alike look at the Davidic king in full battle regalia. When the king’s enemies oppose him on the battlefield, they are, as it were, fighting against God himself. The other option is to regard this title as a reference to God, confronting Isaiah’s readers with the divinity of this promised “child.” The use of this same title that clearly refers to God in a later passage (Isa 10:21) supports this interpretation. Other passages depict Yahweh as the great God and great warrior (Deut 10:17; Jer. 32:18). Although this connection of a child who is born with deity is unparalleled in any earlier biblical texts, Isaiah’s use of this title to make this connection represents Isaiah’s attempt (at God’s behest) to advance Israel in their understanding of the ideal Davidic king for whom they long.

tn This title must not be taken in an anachronistic Trinitarian sense. (To do so would be theologically problematic, for the “Son” is the messianic king and is distinct in his person from God the “Father.”) Rather, in its original context the title pictures the king as the protector of his people. For a similar use of “father” see Isa 22:21 and Job 29:16. This figurative, idiomatic use of “father” is not limited to the Bible. In a Phoenician inscription (ca. 850-800 b.c.) the ruler Kilamuwa declares: “To some I was a father, to others I was a mother.” In another inscription (ca. 800 b.c.) the ruler Azitawadda boasts that the god Baal made him “a father and a mother” to his people. (See ANET 499-500.) The use of “everlasting” might suggest the deity of the king (as the one who has total control over eternity), but Isaiah and his audience may have understood the term as royal hyperbole emphasizing the king’s long reign or enduring dynasty (for examples of such hyperbolic language used of the Davidic king, see 1 Kgs 1:31; Pss 21:4-6; 61:6-7; 72:5, 17). The New Testament indicates that the hyperbolic language (as in the case of the title “Mighty God”) is literally realized in the ultimate fulfillment of the prophecy, for Jesus will rule eternally.

tn This title pictures the king as one who establishes a safe socio-economic environment for his people. It hardly depicts him as a meek individual, for he establishes peace through military strength (as the preceding context and the first two royal titles indicate). His people experience safety and prosperity because their invincible king destroys their enemies. See Pss 72 and 144 for parallels to these themes.



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