Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Isaiah 27:1

Context
NETBible

At that time 1  the Lord will punish with his destructive, 2  great, and powerful sword Leviathan the fast-moving 3  serpent, Leviathan the squirming serpent; he will kill the sea monster. 4 

XREF

De 32:41,42; Job 12:1-25; Job 26:13; Job 40:19; Ps 45:3; Ps 74:13,14; Ps 74:14; Ps 104:26; Isa 26:21; Isa 34:5,6; Isa 51:9; Isa 65:25; Isa 66:16; Jer 47:6; Jer 51:13; Jer 51:34; Eze 29:3; Eze 32:2-5; Re 2:16; Re 12:3-17; Re 13:1; Re 13:2,4,11; Re 16:13; Re 17:1,15; Re 19:21; Re 20:2

NET © Notes

tn Heb “in that day” (so KJV).

tn Heb “hard, severe”; cf. NAB, NRSV “cruel”; KJV “sore”; NLT “terrible.”

tn Heb “fleeing” (so NAB, NASB, NRSV). Some translate “slippery” or “slithering.”

tn The description of Leviathan should be compared with the following excerpts from Ugaritic mythological texts: (1) “Was not the dragon (Ugaritic tnn, cognate with Hebrew תַנִּין [tannin, translated “sea monster” here]) vanquished and captured? I did destroy the wriggling (Ugaritic ’qltn, cognate to Hebrew עֲקַלָּתוֹן [’aqallaton, translated “squirming” here]) serpent, the tyrant with seven heads (cf. Ps 74:14).” (See CTA 3 iii 38-39.) (2) “for all that you smote Leviathan the slippery (Ugaritic brh, cognate to Hebrew בָּרִחַ [bariakh, translated “fast-moving” here]) serpent, [and] made an end of the wriggling serpent, the tyrant with seven heads” (See CTA 5 i 1-3.)

sn In the Ugaritic mythological texts Leviathan is a sea creature that symbolizes the destructive water of the sea and in turn the forces of chaos that threaten the established order. Isaiah here applies imagery from Canaanite mythology to Yahweh’s eschatological victory over his enemies. Elsewhere in the OT, the battle with the sea motif is applied to Yahweh’s victories over the forces of chaos at creation and in history (cf. Pss 74:13-14; 77:16-20; 89:9-10; Isa 51:9-10). Yahweh’s subjugation of the chaos waters is related to His kingship (cf. Pss 29:3, 10; 93:3-4). Apocalyptic literature employs the imagery as well. The beasts of Dan 7 emerge from the sea, while Rev 13 speaks of a seven-headed beast coming from the sea.



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