Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Exodus 9:34

Context
NETBible

When Pharaoh saw 1  that the rain and hail and thunder ceased, he sinned again: 2  both he and his servants hardened 3  their hearts.

XREF

Ex 4:21; Ex 7:14; Ex 8:15; 2Ch 28:22; 2Ch 33:23; 2Ch 36:13; Ec 8:11; Ro 2:4,5

NET © Notes

tn The clause beginning with the preterite and vav (ו) consecutive is here subordinated to the next, and main clause – that he hardened his heart again.

tn The construction is another verbal hendiadys: וַיֹּסֶף לַחֲטֹּא (vayyosef lakhatto’), literally rendered “and he added to sin.” The infinitive construct becomes the main verb, and the Hiphil preterite becomes adverbial. The text is clearly interpreting as sin the hardening of Pharaoh’s heart and his refusal to release Israel. At the least this means that the plagues are his fault, but the expression probably means more than this – he was disobeying Yahweh God.

tn This phrase translates the Hebrew word כָּבֵד (kaved); see S. R. Driver, Exodus, 53.



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