Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Exodus 1:14


They made their lives bitter 1  by 2  hard service with mortar and bricks and by all kinds of service 3  in the fields. Every kind of service the Israelites were required to give was rigorous. 4 


Ge 15:13; Ex 1:13; Ex 2:23; Ex 5:7-21; Ex 6:9; Ex 20:2; Le 25:43,46,53; Nu 20:15; De 4:20; De 26:6; Ru 1:20; Ps 68:13; Ps 81:6; Isa 14:6; Isa 51:23; Isa 52:5; Isa 58:6; Jer 50:33,34; Mic 3:3; Na 3:14; Ac 7:19,34

NET © Notes

sn The verb מָרַר (marar) anticipates the introduction of the theme of bitterness in the instructions for the Passover.

tn The preposition bet (ב) in this verse has the instrumental use: “by means of” (see GKC 380 §119.o).

tn Heb “and in all service.”

tn The line could be more literally translated, “All their service in which they served them [was] with rigor.” This takes the referent of בָּהֶם (bahem) to be the Egyptians. The pronoun may also resume the reference to the kinds of service and so not be needed in English: “All their service in which they served [was] with rigor.”

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