Now all has been heard; here is the conclusion of the matter: Fear God and keep his commandments, for this is the whole duty of man.
The conclusion, when all has been heard, is: fear God and keep His commandments, because this applies to every person.
Here is my final conclusion: Fear God and obey his commands, for this is the duty of every person.
The last and final word is this: Fear God. Do what he tells you.
This is the last word. All has been said. Have fear of God and keep his laws; because this is right for every man.
The end of the matter; all has been heard. Fear God, and keep his commandments; for that is the whole duty of everyone.
Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear God and keep His commandments, For this is man’s all.
|NET © [draft] ITL|
|NET © Notes||
1 tn Heb “The end of the matter, everything having been heard.”
2 tn Heb “This is all men”; or “This is the whole of man.” The phrase זֶה כָּל־הָאָדָם (zeh kol-ha’adam, “this is all men”) features rhetorical elision of a key word. The ambiguity over the elided word has led to no less than five basic approaches: (1) “this is the whole duty of man” (KJV, ASV, RSV, NAB, NIV); (2) “this is the duty of all men” (MLB, ASV margin, RSV margin); (3) “this applies to all men” (NASB, NJPS); (4) “this is the whole duty of all men” (NRSV, Moffatt); and (5) “there is no more to man than this” (NEB). The four-fold repetition of כֹּל (kol, “all”) in 12:13-14 suggests that Qoheleth is emphasizing the “bottom line,” that is, the basic duty of man is simply to fear and obey God: After “all” (כֹּל) has been heard in the book, his conclusion is that the “whole” (כֹּל) duty of man is to obey God because God will bring “all” (כֹּל) acts into judgment, including “all” (כֹּל) that is hidden, whether good or bad. See D. Barthélemy, ed., Preliminary and Interim Report on the Hebrew Old Testament Text Project, 3:596.