Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Amos 1:9


This is what the Lord says: “Because Tyre has committed three crimes 1  – make that four! 2  – I will not revoke my decree of judgment. 3  They sold 4  a whole community 5  to Edom; they failed to observe 6  a treaty of brotherhood. 7 


2Sa 5:11; 1Ki 5:1-11; 1Ki 9:11-14; 2Ch 2:8-16; Isa 23:1-18; Jer 47:4; Eze 26:1-28:26; Joe 3:4-8; Am 1:6,11; Zec 9:2-4

NET © Notes

tn Traditionally, “transgressions” (KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV) or “sins” (NIV). For an explanation of the atrocities outlined in this oracle as treaty violations of God’s mandate to Noah in Gen 9:5-7, see the note on the word “violations” in 1:3.

tn Heb “Because of three violations of Tyre, even because of four.”

sn On the three…four style that introduces each of the judgment oracles of chaps. 1-2 see the note on the word “four” in 1:3.

tn Heb “I will not bring it [or “him”] back.” The translation understands the pronominal object to refer to the decree of judgment that follows; the referent (the decree) has been specified in the translation for clarity. For another option see the note on the word “judgment” in 1:3.

tn Heb “handed over.”

tn Heb “[group of] exiles.” A similar phrase occurs in v. 6.

tn Heb “did not remember.”

sn A treaty of brotherhood. In the ancient Near Eastern world familial terms were sometimes used to describe treaty partners. In a treaty between superior and inferior parties, the lord would be called “father” and the subject “son.” The partners in a treaty between equals referred to themselves as “brothers.” For biblical examples, see 1 Kgs 9:13; 20:32-33.

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