Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Amos 1:13


This is what the Lord says: “Because the Ammonites have committed three crimes 1  – make that four! 2  – I will not revoke my decree of judgment. 3  They ripped open Gilead’s pregnant women 4  so they could expand their territory.


De 2:19; De 23:3,4; Jud 10:7-9; Jud 11:15-28; 1Sa 11:1,2; 2Sa 10:1-8; 2Ki 24:2; 2Ch 20:1,10; Ne 2:19; Ne 4:7-23; Ps 83:7; Isa 5:8; Jer 49:1-6; Jer 49:1; Eze 25:2-7; Eze 35:10; Ho 13:16; Hab 2:5,6; Zep 2:8

NET © Notes

tn Traditionally, “transgressions” (KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV) or “sins” (NIV). For an explanation of the atrocities outlined in this oracle as treaty violations of God’s mandate to Noah in Gen 9:5-7, see the note on the word “violations” in 1:3.

tn Heb “Because of three violations of the Ammonites, even because of four.”
On the three…four style that introduces each of the judgment oracles of chaps. 1-2 see the note on the word “four” in 1:3.

tn Heb “I will not bring it [or “him”] back.” The translation understands the pronominal object to refer to the decree of judgment that follows; the referent (the decree) has been specified in the translation for clarity. For another option see the note on the word “judgment” in 1:3.

sn The Ammonites ripped open Gilead’s pregnant women in conjunction with a military invasion designed to expand their territory. Such atrocities, although repugnant, were not uncommon in ancient Near Eastern warfare.

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