Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

1 Peter 3:18

Context
NET ©

1 Because Christ also suffered 2  once for sins, the just for the unjust, 3  to bring you to God, by being put to death in the flesh but 4  by being made alive in the spirit. 5 

NIV ©

For Christ died for sins once for all, the righteous for the unrighteous, to bring you to God. He was put to death in the body but made alive by the Spirit,

NASB ©

For Christ also died for sins once for all, the just for the unjust, so that He might bring us to God, having been put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit;

NLT ©

Christ also suffered when he died for our sins once for all time. He never sinned, but he died for sinners that he might bring us safely home to God. He suffered physical death, but he was raised to life in the Spirit.

MSG ©

That's what Christ did definitively: suffered because of others' sins, the Righteous One for the unrighteous ones. He went through it all--was put to death and then made alive--to bring us to God.

BBE ©

Because Christ once went through pain for sins, the upright one taking the place of sinners, so that through him we might come back to God; being put to death in the flesh, but given life in the Spirit;

NRSV ©

For Christ also suffered for sins once for all, the righteous for the unrighteous, in order to bring you to God. He was put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit,

NKJV ©

For Christ also suffered once for sins, the just for the unjust, that He might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive by the Spirit,


KJV
For
<3754>
Christ
<5547>
also
<2532>
hath once
<530>
suffered
<3958> (5627)
for
<4012>
sins
<266>_,
the just
<1342>
for
<5228>
the unjust
<94>_,
that
<2443>
he might bring
<4317> (5632)
us
<2248>
to God
<2316>_,
being put to death
<2289> (5772) <3303>
in the flesh
<4561>_,
but
<1161>
quickened
<2227> (5685)
by the Spirit
<4151>_:
NASB ©
For Christ
<5547>
also
<2532>
died
<599>
for sins
<266>
once
<530>
for all
<530>
, the just
<1342>
for the unjust
<94>
, so
<2443>
that He might bring
<4317>
us to God
<2316>
, having been put
<2289>
to death
<2289>
in the flesh
<4561>
, but made
<2227>
alive
<2227>
in the spirit
<4151>
;
GREEK
oti
<3754>
CONJ
kai
<2532>
CONJ
cristov
<5547>
N-NSM
apax
<530>
ADV
peri
<4012>
PREP
amartiwn
<266>
N-GPF
apeyanen
<599> (5627)
V-2AAI-3S
dikaiov
<1342>
A-NSM
uper
<5228>
PREP
adikwn
<94>
A-GPM
ina
<2443>
CONJ
umav
<5209>
P-2AP
prosagagh
<4317> (5632)
V-2AAS-3S
tw
<3588>
T-DSM
yew
<2316>
N-DSM
yanatwyeiv
<2289> (5772)
V-RPP-NSM
men
<3303>
PRT
sarki
<4561>
N-DSF
zwopoihyeiv
<2227> (5685)
V-APP-NSM
de
<1161>
CONJ
pneumati
<4151>
N-DSN
NET © [draft] ITL
Because
<3754>
Christ
<5547>
also
<2532>
suffered
<599>
once
<530>
for
<4012>
sins
<266>
, the just
<1342>
for
<5228>
the unjust
<94>
, to
<2443>
bring
<4317>
you
<5209>
to God
<2316>
, by being put to death
<2289>
in the flesh
<4561>
but
<1161>
by being made alive
<2227>
in the spirit
<4151>
.
NET ©

1 Because Christ also suffered 2  once for sins, the just for the unjust, 3  to bring you to God, by being put to death in the flesh but 4  by being made alive in the spirit. 5 

NET © Notes

sn This passage has been typeset as poetry because many scholars regard this passage as poetic or hymnic. These terms are used broadly to refer to the genre of writing, not to the content. There are two broad criteria for determining if a passage is poetic or hymnic: “(a) stylistic: a certain rhythmical lilt when the passages are read aloud, the presence of parallelismus membrorum (i.e., an arrangement into couplets), the semblance of some metre, and the presence of rhetorical devices such as alliteration, chiasmus, and antithesis; and (b) linguistic: an unusual vocabulary, particularly the presence of theological terms, which is different from the surrounding context” (P. T. O’Brien, Philippians [NIGTC], 188-89). Classifying a passage as hymnic or poetic is important because understanding this genre can provide keys to interpretation. However, not all scholars agree that the above criteria are present in this passage, so the decision to typeset it as poetry should be viewed as a tentative decision about its genre.

tc The variants here are legion (B. M. Metzger produces eight variants in a nice layout of the evidence [TCGNT 622]). Most of these variants involve pronouns, prepositions, or word order changes, but the major problem involves whether Christ “suffered” (ἔπαθεν, epaqen) or “died” (ἀπέθανεν, apeqanen). The witnesses that read ἀπέθανεν are Ì72 א A Cvid Ψ 0285 33 614 630 945 1241 1505 1739; the witnesses that read ἔπαθεν are B L P 81 Ï. Although the external evidence slightly favors ἀπέθανεν, such may be a secondary reading. Intrinsically, ἔπαθεν both fits the context better, especially the verbal link between v. 17 and v. 18 (note in particular the introductory causal ὅτι [{oti, “because”] and the emphatic καί [kai, “also”]), and fits the author’s style (1 Peter never uses ἀποθνῄσκω [apoqnhskw], but uses πάσχω [pascw] 11 other times, more than any other NT book). However, scribes would most likely realize this, and might conform the verb in v. 18 to the author’s typical usage. It may be argued, however, that scribes tended to alter the text in light of more common NT idioms, and did not have as much sensitivity to the literary features in the immediate context. In this instance, it may not be insignificant that the NT collocates ἀποθνῄσκω with ἁμαρτία (Jamartia, “sin”) seven other times, though only once (1 Cor 15:3) with a meaning similar to what would be demanded here, but collocates πάσχω with ἁμαρτία in only one other place, 1 Pet 4:1, where the meaning also detours from what is seen here. All in all, a decision is difficult, but ἔπαθεν is to be preferred slightly.

sn The reference to the just suffering for the unjust is an allusion to Isa 53:11-12.

tn Greek emphasizes the contrast between these two phrases more than can be easily expressed in English.

sn Put to death in the flesh…made alive in the spirit. The contrast of flesh and spirit is not between two parts of Christ’s person (material versus immaterial) but between two broader modes of existence: the realm of unregenerate earthly life versus eternal heavenly life. The reference may not be to the Holy Spirit directly, but indirectly, since the Spirit permeates and characterizes the spiritual mode of existence. However, ExSyn 343 (n. 76) states “It is often objected that the Holy Spirit cannot be in view because the two datives of v 18 (σαρκί, πνεύματι [sarki, pneumati]) would then have a different syntactical force (sphere, means). But if 1 Pet 3:18 is a hymnic or liturgical fragment, this can be no objection because of ‘poetic license’: poetry is replete with examples of grammatical and lexical license, not the least of which is the use of the same morpho-syntactic categories, in parallel lines, with entirely different senses (note, e.g., the dat. expressions in 1 Tim 3:16).”



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