2 sn Laban8217;s obsession with wealth is apparent; to him it represents how one is <i>blessed by thei> <sc>Lordsc>. Already the author is laying the foundation for subsequent events in the narrative, where Laban8217;s greed becomes his dominant characteristic.
3 sn B. Jacob is amazed at the wealth of this tyrant8217;s vocabulary in describing the work of others. Here, <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1514;1465;1499;1462;1503;font> (<font face="Scholar">tokhenfont>) is another word for 8220;quota8221; of bricks, the fifth word used to describe their duty (<i>Exodusi>, 137).
2 sn For the next two verses Job lashes out in sarcasm against his friends. If he had asked for charity, for their wealth, he might have expected their cold response. But all he wanted was sympathy and understanding (H. H. Rowley, <i>Jobi> [NCBC], 63).
1 tn The reference to 8220;your beginning8221; is a reference to Job8217;s former estate of wealth and peace. The reference to 8220;latter end8221; is a reference to conditions still in the future. What Job had before will seem so small in comparison to what lies ahead.
3 tn <i>Hebi> 8220;the tents of bribery.8221; The word 8220;bribery8221; can mean a 8220;gift,8221; but most often in the sense of a bribe in court. It indicates that the wealth and the possessions that the wicked man has gained may have been gained unjustly.
1 sn <i>Psalm 49i>. In this so-called wisdom psalm (see v. 3) the psalmist states that he will not fear the rich enemies who threaten him, for despite their wealth, they are mere men who will die like everyone else. The psalmist is confident the Lord will vindicate the godly and protect them from the attacks of their oppressors.
3 tn <i>Hebi> 8220;those who unjustly gain unjust gain.8221; The participle <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1489;1468;1465;1510;1461;1506;1463;font> (<font face="Scholar">boyseafont>8217;, 8220;those who unjustly gain8221;) is followed by the cognate accusative of the same root <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1489;1468;1464;1510;1463;1506;font> (<font face="Scholar">batsafont>8217;, 8220;unjust gain8221;) to underscore the idea that they gained their wealth through heinous criminal activity.
1 tn The imperative <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1499;1468;1463;1489;1468;1461;1491;font> (<font face="Scholar">kabbedfont>, 8220;honor8221;) functions as a command, instruction, counsel or exhortation. To honor God means to give him the rightful place of authority by rendering to him gifts of tribute. One way to acknowledge God in one8217;s ways (v. 6) is to honor him with one8217;s wealth (v. 9).
1 sn The 8220;day of wrath8221; refers to divine punishment in this life (R. N. Whybray, <i>Proverbsi> [CBC], 67; e.g., also Job 21:30; Ezek 7:19; Zeph 1:18). Righteousness and not wealth is more valuable in anticipating judgment.
3 sn The proverb seems to be a general observation on certain people in life, but it is saying more. Although there are times when such pretending may not be wrong, the proverb is instructing people to be honest. An empty pretentious display or a concealing of wealth can come to no good.
1 sn As the word 8220;ransom8221; (<font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1499;1468;1465;1508;1462;1512;font>, <font face="Scholar">coferfont>) indicates, the rich are susceptible to kidnapping and robbery. But the poor man pays no attention to blackmail 8211; he does not have money to buy off oppressors. So the rich person is exposed to legal attacks and threats of physical violence and must use his wealth as ransom.
1 tn <i>Hebi> 8220;wealth from vanity8221; (cf. KJV, ASV). The term <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1492;1462;1489;1462;1500;font> (<font face="Scholar">hevelfont>) literally means 8220;vapor8221; and figuratively refers to that which is unsubstantial, fleeting, or amount to nothing (BDB 210 s.v.). Used in antithesis with the expression 8220;little by little,8221; it means either 8220;without working for it8221; or 8220;quickly.8221; Some English versions assume dishonest gain (cf. NASB, NIV, CEV).
3 sn Honor and success are contrasted with poverty and shame; the key to enjoying the one and escaping the other is discipline and correction. W. McKane, <i>Proverbsi> (OTL), 456, notes that it is a difference between a man of weight (power and wealth, from the idea of 8220;heavy8221; for 8220;honor8221;) and the man of straw (lowly esteemed and poor).
2 sn Again the saying concerns troublesome wealth: Loving relationships with simple food are better than a feast where there is hatred. The ideal, of course, would be loving family and friends with a great meal in addition, but this proverb is only comparing two things.
2 sn This is another 8220;better8221; saying; between these two things, the first is better. There are other options 8211; such as righteousness with wealth 8211; but the proverb is not concerned with that. A similar saying appears in Amenemope 8:19-20 (<i>ANETi> 422).
2 tn <i>Hebi> 8220;than to divide plunder.8221; The word 8220;plunder8221; implies that the wealth taken by the proud was taken violently and wrongfully 8211; spoils are usually taken in warfare. R. N. Whybray translates it with 8220;loot8221; (<i>Proverbsi> [CBC], 95). The proud are in rebellion against God, overbearing and oppressive. One should never share the 8220;loot8221; with them.
4 tc The MT reads <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1489;1468;1456;1502;1463;1513;1474;1456;1499;1468;1460;1497;1514;1493;1465;font> (<font face="Scholar">b255;maskitofont>, 8220;in his imaginations8221;). The LXX, <i>Tgi>. Prov 18:11, and the Latin reflect <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1489;1468;1460;1502;1456;1513;1474;1467;1499;1468;1464;1514;1493;1465;font> (<font face="Scholar">bimsukatofont>, 8220;like a fence [or, high wall]8221;) that is, wealth provides protection. The MT reading, on the other hand, suggests that this security is only in the mind.
4 tn The proverb is an observation saying, reporting a common assumption without commenting on it. The juxtaposition with the last verse is a loud criticism of this misguided faith. The final word <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1489;1468;1456;1502;1463;1513;1474;1456;1499;1468;1460;1497;1514;1493;1465;font> (8220;in his imaginations8221;) indicates that one8217;s wealth is a futile place of refuge.
2 tn <i>Hebi> 8220;all.8221; The <sc>Lordsc> is sovereign over both groups, that is, he has had the final say whether a person is rich or poor. People would do well to treat all people with respect, for God can as easily reduce the rich to poverty as raise up the poor to wealth.
2 sn This seventh saying warns people not to expend all their energy trying to get rich because riches are fleeting (cf. Instruction of Amememope, chap. 7, 9:10-11 which says, 8220;they have made themselves wings like geese and have flown away to heaven8221;). In the ancient world the symbol of birds flying away signified fleeting wealth.