2 sn That is, about fifteen or sixteen pounds.
1 tn <i>Hebi> 8220;And the sons of Eleazar were found to be more, with respect to the heads of men, than the sons of Ithamar, and they divided them. To the sons of Eleazar there were sixteen heads, according to the house of the fathers; and to the sons of Ithamar there were eight, according to the house of their fathers.8221;
2 sn <i>Before one stone was laid on another in the <sc>Lordsc>8217;s templei> is best taken as referring to the laying of the present temple8217;s foundation, sixteen years earlier (536 <sc>b.c.sc>; see Ezra 3:8). Cf. NCV 8220;before you started laying stones8221;; TEV 8220;before you started to rebuild8221;; NLT 8220;before you began to lay (started laying CEV) the foundation.8221;
2 tn The Hebrew term <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1499;1468;1460;1499;1468;1464;1512;font> (<font face="Scholar">kikkarfont>, 8220;circle8221;) refers generally to something that is round. When used of metals it can refer to a disk-shaped weight made of the metal or to a standard unit of weight, generally regarded as a talent. Since the accepted weight for a talent of metal is about 75 pounds, this would have amounted to about 31,500 pounds of gold (cf. NCV); CEV, NLT 8220;sixteen tons8221;; TEV 8220;more than 14,000 kilogrammes.8221;
2 sn This extended simile compares the siege of Nineveh with reapers shaking a tree to harvest the 8220;first-ripe fruit.8221; Fruit that matured quickly and ripened early in the season dropped from the trees more easily than the later crop which developed more slowly (Isa 28:4). To harvest the later crop the worker had to climb the tree (sixteen to twenty feet tall) and pick the figs by hand from each branch. On the other hand, the fruit from the early harvest could be gathered quickly and with a minimum of effort by simply shaking the trunk of the tree (G. Dalman, <i>Arbeit und Sitte in Palestinai>, 1:378-80). The point of this simile is that Nineveh would fall easily and quickly.
1 tn Scholars have debated the precise meaning of the term <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1512;1463;1489;1468;1460;1497;1501;font> (<font face="Scholar">rabbimfont>) that occurs five times in this passage (Isa 52:14, 15; 53:11, 12 [2x]). Its two broad categories of translation are 8220;much8221;/8220;many8221; and 8220;great8221; (<i>HALOTi> 1171-72 s.v. I <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1512;1463;1489;font>). Unlike other Hebrew terms for might or strength, this term is linked with numbers or abundance. In all sixteen uses outside of Isaiah 52:13-53:12 (articular and plural) it signifies an inclusive meaning: 8220;the majority8221; or 8220;the multitude8221; (J. Jeremias, <i>TDNTi> 6:536-37). This term occurs in parallelism with <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1506;1458;1510;1493;1468;1502;1460;1497;1501;font> (8217;<font face="Scholar">atsumimfont>), which normally signifies 8220;numerous8221; or 8220;large8221; or 8220;powerful8221; (through large numbers). Like <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1512;1463;1489;1468;1460;1497;1501;font> (<font face="Scholar">rabbimfont>), it refers to greatness in numbers (cf. Deut 4:38; 7:1; 9:1; 11:34). It emphasizes the multitudes with whom the Servant will share the spoil of his victory. As J. Olley wrote: 8220;Yahweh has won the victory and vindicates his Servant, giving to him many subservient people, together with their spoils. These numerous peoples in turn receive blessing, sharing in the 8220;peace8221; resulting from Yahweh8217;s victory and the Servant8217;s suffering8221; (John W. Olley, 8220;8216;The Many8217;: How Is Isa 53,12a to Be Understood,8221; <i>Bibi> 68 : 330-56).
1 tn In vv. 3-15 there is a mixture of eleven prefixed verbal forms (without <i>vavi> [<font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1493;font>] consecutive or with <i>vavi> conjunctive), sixteen suffixed forms, and three prefixed forms with <i>vavi> consecutive. All of the forms are best taken as indicating completed action from the speaker8217;s standpoint (all of the prefixed forms being regarded as preterites). The forms could be translated with the past tense, but this would be misleading, for this is not a mere recital of God8217;s deeds in Israel8217;s past history. Habakkuk here describes, in terms reminiscent of past theophanies, his prophetic vision of a future theophany (see v. 7, 8220;I saw8221;). From the prophet8217;s visionary standpoint the theophany is 8220;as good as done.8221; This translation uses the English present tense throughout these verses to avoid misunderstanding. A similar strategy is followed by the NEB; in contrast note the NIV and NRSV, which consistently use past tenses throughout the section, and the NASB, which employs present tenses in vv. 3-5 and mostly past tenses in vv. 6-15.