4 sn The image of the house <i>empty, swept clean, and put in orderi> refers to the life of the person from whom the demon departed. The key to the example appears to be that no one else has been invited in to dwell. If an exorcism occurs and there is no response to God, then the way is free for the demon to return. Some see the reference to exorcism as more symbolic; thus the story8217;s only point is about responding to Jesus. This is possible and certainly is an application of the passage.
3 tn The term <font face="Galaxie Unicode Greek">7936;957;945;943;948;949;953;945;font> (<font face="Greektl">anaideiafont>) is hard to translate. It refers to a combination of ideas, a boldness that persists over time, or 8220;audacity,8221; which comes close. It most likely describes the one making the request, since the unit8217;s teaching is an exhortation about persistence in prayer. Some translate the term 8220;shamelessness8221; which is the term8217;s normal meaning, and apply it to the neighbor as an illustration of God responding for the sake of his honor. But the original question was posed in terms of the first man who makes the request, not of the neighbor, so the teaching underscores the action of the one making the request.
3 sn The image of the house <i>swept clean and put in orderi> refers to the life of the person from whom the demon departed. The key to the example appears to be that no one else has been invited in to dwell. If an exorcism occurs and there is no response to God, then the way is free for the demon to return. Some see the reference to exorcism as more symbolic; thus the story8217;s only point is about responding to Jesus. This is possible and certainly is an application of the passage.
5 tn Many translations have 8220;entereth violently into it8221; (ASV) or 8220;is forcing his way into it8221; (NASB, NIV). This is not true of everyone. It is better to read the verb here as passive rather than middle, and in a softened sense of 8220;be urged.8221; See Gen 33:11; Judg 13:15-16; 19:7; 2 Sam 3:25, 27 in the LXX. This fits the context well because it agrees with Jesus8217; attempt to persuade his opponents to respond morally. For further discussion and details, see D. L. Bock, <i>Lukei> (BECNT), 2:1352-53.
4 tn Or 8220;righteousness8221;; or 8220;evidence of steadfast commitment.8221; The noun is an adverbial accusative. The verb translated 8220;considered8221; (<i>Hebi> 8220;reckoned8221;) also appears with <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1510;1456;1491;1464;1511;1464;1492;font> (<font face="Scholar">ts255;daqahfont>, 8220;righteousness8221;) in Ps 106:31. Alluding to the events recorded in Numbers 25, the psalmist notes that Phinehas8217; actions were 8220;credited to him as righteousness for endless generations to come.8221; Reference is made to the unconditional, eternal covenant with which God rewarded Phinehas8217; loyalty (Num 25:12-13). So <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1510;1456;1491;1464;1511;1464;1492;font> seems to carry by metonymy the meaning 8220;loyal, rewardable behavior8221; here, a nuance that fits nicely in Genesis 15, where God responds to Abram8217;s faith by formally ratifying his promise to give Abram and his descendants the land. (See R. B. Chisholm, 8220;Evidence from Genesis,8221; <i>A Case for Premillennialismi>, 40.) In Phoenician and Old Aramaic inscriptions cognate nouns glossed as 8220;correct, justifiable conduct8221; sometimes carry this same semantic nuance (<i>DNWSIi> 2:962).
2 sn This song of the sea is, then, a great song of praise for Yahweh8217;s deliverance of Israel at the Sea, and his preparation to lead them to the promised land, much to the (anticipated) dread of the nations. The principle here, and elsewhere in Scripture, is that the people of God naturally respond to God in praise for his great acts of deliverance. Few will match the powerful acts that were exhibited in Egypt, but these nonetheless set the tone. The song is certainly typological of the song of the saints in heaven who praise God for delivering them from the bondage of this world by judging the world. The focus of the praise, though, still is on the person (attributes) and works of God.
5 tn The verb 8220;repent, relent8221; when used of God is certainly an anthropomorphism. It expresses the deep pain that one would have over a situation. Earlier God repented that he had made humans (Gen 6:6). Here Moses is asking God to repent/relent over the judgment he was about to bring, meaning that he should be moved by such compassion that there would be no judgment like that. J. P. Hyatt observes that the Bible uses so many anthropomorphisms because the Israelites conceived of God as a dynamic and living person in a vital relationship with people, responding to their needs and attitudes and actions (<i>Exodusi> [NCBC], 307). See H. V. D. Parunak, 8220;A Semantic Survey of <i>NHMi>,8221; <i>Bibi> 56 (1975): 512-32.
1 tn The Niphal verb of the Hebrew root <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1511;1464;1491;1463;1513;1473;font> (<font face="Scholar">qadashfont>) can mean either 8220;to be treated as holy8221; (so here, e.g., BDB 873 s.v. <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1511;1468;1464;1491;1463;1513;1473;font>, LXX, NASB, and NEB) or 8220;to show oneself holy8221; (so here, e.g., <i>HALOTi> 1073 s.v. <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1511;1491;1513;1473;font>nif.1, NIV, NRSV, NLT; J. Milgrom, <i>Leviticusi> [AB], 1:595, 601-3; and J. E. Hartley, <i>Leviticusi> [WBC], 133-34). The latter rendering seems more likely here since, in the immediate context, the <sc>Lordsc> himself had indeed shown himself to be holy by the way he responded to the illegitimate incense offering of Nadab and Abihu. They had not treated the <sc>Lordsc> as holy, so the <sc>Lordsc> acted on his own behalf to show that he was indeed holy.
1 tn The meaning of the Hebrew expression <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1489;1468;1460;1508;1456;1512;1465;1506;1463; 1508;1468;1456;1512;1464;1506;1493;1465;1514;font> (<font face="Scholar">bifroafont>8217; <font face="Scholar">p255;rafont>8217;<font face="Scholar">otfont>) is uncertain. Numerous proposals are offered by commentators. (For a survey of opinions, see B. Lindars, <i>Judges 1-5i>, 223-27.) The next line refers to the people who responded to Barak8217;s summons to war, so a reference to the leaders who issued the summons would provide a natural poetic parallel. In v. 9 the leaders (<font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1495;1493;1465;1511;1456;1511;1461;1497;font>, <font face="Scholar">khoq255;qeyfont>) of the people and these same volunteers stand in poetic parallelism, so it is reasonable to assume that the difficult Hebrew term <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1508;1468;1456;1512;1463;1506;1493;1465;1514;font> (<font face="Scholar">p255;rafont>8217;<font face="Scholar">otfont>, v. 2a) is synonymous with <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1495;1493;1465;1511;1456;1511;1461;1497;font> (<font face="Scholar">khoq255;qeyfont>) of v. 9 (see Lindars, 227).
3 tn The adjective <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1506;1460;1511;1468;1461;1513;1473;font> (8217;<font face="Scholar">iqqeshfont>) has the basic nuance 8220;twisted; crooked,8221; and by extension refers to someone or something that is morally perverse. It appears frequently in Proverbs, where it is used of evil people (22:5), speech (8:8; 19:1), thoughts (11:20; 17:20) and life styles (2:15; 28:6). A righteous king opposes such people (Ps 101:4). Verses 26-27 affirm God8217;s justice. He responds to people in accordance with their moral character. His response mirrors their actions. The faithful and blameless find God to be loyal and reliable in his dealings with them. But deceivers discover he is able and willing to use deceit to destroy them. For a more extensive discussion of the theme of divine deception in the OT, see R. B. Chisholm, 8220;Does God Deceive?8221; <i>BSaci> 155 (1998): 11-28.
3 sn The meaning of the expression is obscure. It may come from the idea of sacrificing an animal or another person in order to go free, suggesting the expression that one type of skin that was worth less was surrendered to save the more important life. Satan would then be saying that Job was willing for others to die for him to go free, but not himself. 8220;Skin8221; would be a synecdoche of the part for the whole (like the idiomatic use of skin today for a person in a narrow escape). The second clause indicates that God has not even scratched the surface because Job has been protected. His 8220;skin8221; might have been scratched, but not his flesh and bone! But if his life had been put in danger, he would have responded differently.
1 sn <i>Psalm 41i>. The psalmist is confident (vv. 11-12) that the Lord has heard his request to be healed (vv. 4-10), and he anticipates the joy he will experience when the Lord intervenes (vv. 1-3). One must assume that the psalmist is responding to a divine oracle of assurance (see P. C. Craigie, <i>Psalms 1-50i> [WBC], 319-20). The final verse is a fitting conclusion to this psalm, but it is also serves as a fitting conclusion to the first 8220;book8221; (or major editorial division) of the Psalter. Similar statements appear at or near the end of each of the second, third, and fourth 8220;books8221; of the Psalter (see Pss 72:19, 89:52, and 106:48 respectively).
4 tn <i>Hebi> 8220;not they.8221; The last line of the verse is problematic. The preceding two lines are loosely synonymous in their parallelism, but the third adds something like: 8220;he pursues [them with] words, but they [do] not [respond].8221; Some simply say it is a corrupt remnant of a separate proverb and beyond restoration. The basic idea does make sense, though. The idea of his family and friends rejecting the poor person reveals how superficial they are, and how they make themselves scarce. Since they are far off, he has to look for them 8220;with words8221; (adverbial accusative), that is, 8220;send word8221; for help. But they 8220;are nowhere to be found8221; (so NIV). The LXX reads 8220;will not be delivered8221; in place of 8220;not they8221; 8211; clearly an attempt to make sense out of the cryptic phrase, and, in the process, showing evidence for that text.
1 tn The addressee (second masculine singular, as in vv. 13, 15) in this verse is unclear. The exiles are addressed in the immediately preceding verses (note the critical tone of vv. 12-13 and the reference to the exiles in v. 14). However, it seems unlikely that they are addressed in v. 16, for the addressee appears to be commissioned to tell Zion, who here represents the restored exiles, 8220;you are my people.8221; The addressee is distinct from the exiles. The language of v. 16a is reminiscent of 49:2 and 50:4, where the Lord8217;s special servant says he is God8217;s spokesman and effective instrument. Perhaps the Lord, having spoken to the exiles in vv. 1-15, now responds to this servant, who spoke just prior to this in 50:4-11.
1 sn The form of Jer 14:18211;15:9 is very striking rhetorically. It consists essentially of laments and responses to them. However, what makes it so striking is its deviation from normal form (cf. 2 Chr 20:5-17 for what would normally be expected). The descriptions of the lamentable situation come from the mouth of God <i>noti> the people (cf.14:1-6, 17-18). The prophet utters the petitions with statements of trust (14:7-9, 19-22) and the <sc>Lordsc> answers <i>noti> with oracles promising deliverance but promising doom (14:10; 15:1-9). In the course of giving the first oracle of doom, the Lord commands Jeremiah not to pray for the people (14:11-12) and Jeremiah tries to provide an excuse for their actions (14:13). The <sc>Lordsc> responds to that with an oracle of doom on the false prophets (14:14-16).
2 sn Something was wrong with the clay 8211; either there was a lump in it, or it was too moist or not moist enough, or it had some other imperfection. In any case the vessel was 8220;ruined8221; or 8220;spoiled8221; or defective in the eyes of the potter. This same verb has been used of the linen shorts that were 8220;ruined8221; and hence were 8220;good for nothing8221; in Jer 13:7. The nature of the clay and how it responded to the potter8217;s hand determined the kind of vessel that he made of it. He did not throw the clay away. This is the basis for the application in vv. 7-10 to any nation and to the nation of Israel in particular vv. 10-17.
7 sn In 6:3 unrepentant Israel uttered an over-confident boast that the <sc>Lordsc> would rescue the nation from calamity as certainly as the 8220;light of the dawn8221; (<font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1513;1473;1463;1495;1463;1512;font>, <font face="Scholar">shakharfont>) 8220;comes forth8221; (<font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1497;1461;1510;1461;1488;font>, <font face="Scholar">yetsefont>8217;) every morning. Playing upon the early morning imagery, the <sc>Lordsc> responded in 6:4 that Israel8217;s prerequisite repentance was as fleeting as the early morning dew. Now in 6:5, the <sc>Lordsc> announces that he will indeed appear as certainly as the morning; however, it will not be to rescue but to punish Israel: punishment will 8220;come forth8221; (<font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1497;1461;1510;1461;1488;font>) like the 8220;light of the dawn8221; (<font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1488;1493;1465;1512;font>).
9 tn The terms <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1488;1458;1506;1463;1504;1468;1461;1498;1456;font> (8217;<font face="Scholar">afont>8217;<font face="Scholar">annekhfont>, 8220;I will [no longer] afflict you8221;) and <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1493;1456;1506;1460;1504;1468;1460;1514;1460;1498;1456;font> (<font face="Scholar">v255;font>8217;<font face="Scholar">innitikhfont>, 8220;I afflicted you8221;) are both derived from the root II <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1506;1464;1504;1464;1492;font> (8217;<font face="Scholar">anahfont>, 8220;to afflict8221;). The LXX mistakenly confused this with the more common root I <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1506;1464;1504;1464;1492;font> (8220;to answer, respond8221;). Although it mistranslated the roots, the LXX reflects the same consonantal text as the MT: <font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1493;1456;1506;1460;1504;1468;1460;1514;1460;1498;1456; 1500;1465;1488; 1488;1458;1506;1463;1504;1468;1461;1498;1456;font> (<font face="Scholar">v255;font>8217;<font face="Scholar">innitikh lofont>8217; 8217;<font face="Scholar">afont>8217;<font face="Scholar">annekhfont>, 8220;Although I have afflicted you, I will afflict you no longer8221;). Some modern English versions supply various terms not in the Hebrew text to indicate the addressee: NIV 8220;O Judah8221;; NLT 8220;O my people.8221; Judah is specifically addressed in 1:15 (2:1 HT) and the feminine singular is used there, just as it is in 1:12.
1 tn The syntactical relationship between vv. 24-25 is disputed. The question turns on whether v. 25 is connected to v. 24 or not. A lack of a clear connective makes an independent idea more likely. However, one must then determine what the beginning of the sentence connects to. Though it makes for slightly awkward English, the translation has opted to connect it to 8220;he will answer8221; so that this functions, in effect, as an apodosis. One could end the sentence after 8220;us8221; and begin a new sentence with 8220;He will answer8221; to make simpler sentences, although the connection between the two sentences is thereby less clear. The point of the passage, however, is clear. Once the door is shut, because one failed to come in through the narrow way, it is closed permanently. The moral: Do not be too late in deciding to respond.
3 sn What is the meaning of Jesus8217; statement 8220;<i>I do not judge anyonei>8221;? It is clear that Jesus did judge (even in the next verse). The point is that he didn8217;t practice the same kind of judgment that the Pharisees did. Their kind of judgment was condemnatory. They tried to condemn people. Jesus did not come to judge the world, but to save it (3:17). Nevertheless, and not contradictory to this, the coming of Jesus did bring judgment, because it forced people to make a choice. Would they accept Jesus or reject him? Would they come to the light or shrink back into the darkness? As they responded, so were they judged 8211; just as 3:19-21 previously stated. One8217;s response to Jesus determines one8217;s eternal destiny.