3 sn See the note on the word <i>helli> in 5:22.
2 sn See the note on the word <i>helli> in 5:22.
4 sn See the note on the word <i>helli> in 5:22.
1 sn See the note on the word <i>helli> in 5:22.
1 sn On this word here and in the following verse, see the note on the word <i>helli> in 5:22.
2 sn The <i>great chasmi> between heaven and hell is impassable forever. The rich man8217;s former status meant nothing now.
1 sn <i>Sheoli> refers here not to hell and hell-fire 8211; a much later concept 8211; but to the innermost parts of the earth, as low down as one could get. The parallel with 8220;the foundations of the mountains8221; makes this clear (cf. Pss 9:17; 16:10; 139:8; Isa 14:9, 15; Amos 9:2).
2 tn Or 8220;deeper than hell.8221; The word 8220;Sheol8221; always poses problems for translation. Here because it is the opposite of heaven in this merism, 8220;hell8221; would be a legitimate translation. It refers to the realm of the dead 8211; the grave and beyond. The language is excessive; but the point is that God8217;s wisdom is immeasurable 8211; and Job is powerless before it.
1 sn The statement <i>everyone will be salted with firei> is difficult to interpret. It may be a reference to (1) unbelievers who enter hell as punishment for rejection of Jesus, indicating that just as salt preserves so they will be preserved in their punishment in hell forever; (2) Christians who experience suffering in this world because of their attachment to Christ; (3) any person who experiences suffering in a way appropriate to their relationship to Jesus. For believers this means the suffering of purification, and for unbelievers it means hell, i.e., eternal torment.
2 sn <i>Sheoli> in the Bible refers to the place where the dead go. But it can have different categories of meaning: death in general, the grave, or the realm of the departed spirits [hell]. A. Heidel shows that in the Bible when hell is in view the righteous are not there 8211; it is the realm of the departed spirits of the wicked. When the righteous go to Sheol, the meaning is usually the grave or death. See chapter 3 in A. Heidel, <i>The Gilgamesh Epic and the Old Testament Parallelsi>.
1 tn <i>Hebi> 8220;into Sheol8221; (so ASV, NASB, NRSV), that is, the land of the dead localized in Hebrew thought in the earth8217;s core or the grave. Cf. KJV 8220;hell8221;; NCV, NLT 8220;the place of the dead8221;; NIV 8220;the depths of the grave.8221;
1 sn In the OT, <i>Hadesi> was known as <i>Sheoli>. It is the place where the unrighteous will reside (Matt 11:23; Luke 16:23; Rev 20:13-14). Some translations render this by its modern equivalent, 8220;hell8221;; others see it as a reference to the power of death.
4 tn <i>Grki> 8220;a son of Gehenna.8221; Expressions constructed with <font face="Galaxie Unicode Greek">965;7985;972;962;font> (<font face="Greektl">Juiosfont>) followed by a genitive of class or kind denote a person belonging to the class or kind specified by the following genitive (L&N 9.4). Thus the phrase here means 8220;a person who belongs to hell.8221;
2 sn The actual performer of the killing is not here specified. It could be understood to be God (so NASB, NRSV) but it could simply emphasize that, after a killing has taken place, it is God who casts the person into hell.
1 sn The Greek term <i>Hadesi> stands for the Hebrew concept of <i>Sheoli>. It is what is called <i>helli> today. This is where the dead were gathered (Ps 16:10; 86:13). In the NT Hades has an additional negative force of awaiting judgment (Rev 20:13).
2 sn The 8220;dead8221; are the <i>Rephaimi>, the 8220;shades8221; or dead persons who lead a shadowy existence in Sheol (e.g., Prov 2:18-19; Job 3:13-19; Ps 88:5; Isa 14:9-11). This approximates an 8220;as-if8221; motif of wisdom literature: The ones ensnared in folly are as good as in Hell. See also Ptah-hotep8217;s sayings (<i>ANETi> 412-414).
1 tn <i>Hebi> 8220;Sheol and Abaddon8221; (<font face="Galaxie Unicode Hebrew">1513;1473;1456;1488;1493;1465;1500; 1493;1463;1488;1458;1489;1463;1491;1468;1493;1465;1503;font> (<font face="Scholar">sh255;font>8217;<font face="Scholar">ol vafont>8217;<font face="Scholar">adonfont>); so ASV, NASB, NRSV; cf. KJV 8220;Hell and destruction8221;; NAB 8220;the nether world and the abyss.8221; These terms represent the remote underworld and all the mighty powers that reside there (e.g., Prov 27:20; Job 26:6; Ps 139:8; Amos 9:2; Rev 9:11). The <sc>Lordsc> knows everything about this remote region.
3 sn <i>Angelic sentriesi> (<i>Hebi> 8220;cherubim8221;). The cherubim in the Bible seem to be a class of angels that are composite in appearance. Their main task seems to be guarding. Here they guard the way to the tree of life. The curtain in the tabernacle was to be embroidered with cherubim as well, symbolically guarding the way to God. (See in addition A. S. Kapelrud, 8220;The Gates of Hell and the Guardian Angels of Paradise,8221; <i>JAOSi> 70 : 151-56; and D. N. Freedman and M. P. O8217;Connor, <i>TDOTi> 7:307-19.)
7 sn The word translated <i>helli> is 8220;Gehenna8221; (<font face="Galaxie Unicode Greek">947;941;949;957;957;945;font>, <font face="Greektl">geennafont>), a Greek transliteration of the Hebrew words <i>ge hinnomi> (8220;Valley of Hinnom8221;). This was the valley along the south side of Jerusalem. In OT times it was used for human sacrifices to the pagan god Molech (cf. Jer 7:31; 19:5-6; 32:35), and it came to be used as a place where human excrement and rubbish were disposed of and burned. In the intertestamental period, it came to be used symbolically as the place of divine punishment (cf. <i>1 En.i> 27:2, 90:26; <i>4 Ezrai> 7:36).
1 tn <i>Grki> 8220;handed him over to the torturers,8221; referring specifically to guards whose job was to torture prisoners who were being questioned. According to L&N 37.126, it is difficult to know for certain in this instance whether the term actually envisions torture as a part of the punishment or is simply a hyperbole. However, in light of the following verse and Jesus8217; other warning statements in Matthew about 8220;fiery hell,8221; 8220;the outer darkness,8221; etc., it is best not to dismiss this as mere imagery.