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(1.00) (2Co 3:14)

tn Grk “their minds were hardened.”

(0.86) (Jer 7:26)

tn Heb “hardened [or made stiff] their neck.”

(0.71) (Jer 6:28)

tn Or “arch rebels,” or “hardened rebels.” Literally “rebels of rebels.”

(0.71) (1Sa 6:6)

tn Heb “like Egypt and Pharaoh hardened their heart.”

(0.61) (Job 39:16)

sn This verb, “to deal harshly; to harden; to treat cruelly,” is used for hardening the heart elsewhere (see Isa 63:17).

(0.57) (Rom 9:18)

tn Grk “So then, he has mercy on whom he desires, and he hardens whom he desires.”

(0.57) (Jer 19:15)

tn Heb “They hardened [or made stiff] their neck so as not to.”

(0.57) (Jer 17:23)

tn Heb “They hardened [or made stiff] their neck so as not to.”

(0.57) (Deu 2:30)

tn Heb “hardened his spirit” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV); NIV “made his spirit stubborn.”

(0.51) (Exo 14:17)

tn הִנְנִי (hineni) before the participle gives it the force of a futur instans participle, meaning “I am about to harden” or “I am going to harden” their heart.

(0.51) (Exo 7:3)

tn The clause begins with the emphatic use of the pronoun and a disjunctive vav (ו) expressing the contrast “But as for me, I will harden.” They will speak, but God will harden.

(0.50) (Rom 11:25)

tn Or “Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in.”

(0.50) (Act 19:9)

tn Or “some became hardened.” See BDAG 930 s.v. σκληρύνω b and Acts 7:51-53.

(0.50) (Psa 95:8)

tn Heb “do not harden your heart[s] as [at] Meribah, as [in] the day of Massah in the wilderness.”

(0.50) (Deu 10:16)

tn Heb “your neck do not harden again.” See note on the word “stubborn” in Deut 9:6.

(0.50) (Exo 7:22)

tn The vav consecutive on the preterite introduces the outcome or result of the matter—Pharaoh was hardened.

(0.43) (Exo 7:3)

sn The imperfect tense of the verb קָשָׁה (qashah) is found only here in these “hardening passages.” The verb (here the Hiphil for “I will harden”) summarizes Pharaoh’s resistance to what God would be doing through Moses—he would stubbornly resist and refuse to submit; he would be resolved in his opposition. See R. R. Wilson, “The Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart,” CBQ 41 (1979): 18-36.

(0.43) (Isa 63:17)

tn Heb “[Why do] you harden our heart[s] so as not to fear you.” The interrogative particle is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

(0.43) (Exo 9:34)

tn The clause beginning with the preterite and vav (ו) consecutive is here subordinated to the next, and main clause—that he hardened his heart again.

(0.40) (Exo 30:23)

sn Myrrh is an aromatic substance that flows from the bark of certain trees in Arabia and Africa and then hardens. “The hardened globules of the gum appear also to have been ground into a powder that would have been easy to store and would have been poured from a container” (J. Durham, Exodus [WBC], 3:406).

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