2 sn The Bible frequently joins these two words, “good” and “evil,” (or “benefit” and “harm”). They contrast the prosperity and well-being of her contribution with what would be devastating and painful. The way of wisdom is always characterized by “good”; the way of folly is associated with “evil.”
2 tn The term translated “justice” is <span class="hebrew">מִשְׁפָּטspan> (<span class="translit">mishpatspan>); it refers to the legal rights of people, decisions that are equitable in the community. W. G. Plaut observes that there are always those who think that “justice” is that which benefits them, otherwise it is not justice (<i>Proverbsi>, 282).
1 sn The contrast here is between the simple and the wise. The simple gain wisdom when they see the scorner punished; the wise gains knowledge through instruction. The scorner does not change, but should be punished for the benefit of the simple (e.g., <data ref="Bible:Pr 19:25">Prov 19:25data>).
3 sn The fear of the <span class="smcaps">Lordspan> will not only provide security for the parent but will also be a refuge for children. The line recalls <data ref="Bible:Ex 20:5-6">Exod 20:5-6data> where children will reap the benefits of the righteous parents. The line could also be read as “he [= God] will be a refuge for the children.”
1 sn The verb <span class="hebrew">חָרַשׁspan> (<span class="translit">kharashspan>) means (1) literally: “to cut in; to engrave; to plow,” describing the work of a craftsman; and (2) figuratively: “to devise,” describing the mental activity of planning evil (what will harm people) in the first colon, and planning good (what will benefit them) in the second colon.
2 tn The perfect tense verb in the first colon and the imperfect verb in the second colon accent the antithetic parallelism. The verse contrasts Lady Wisdom and Lady Folly by painting the picture of what Wisdom has done (and by implication still benefits from) in contrast to what Folly keeps doing (to her own detriment).
1 tn <i>Hebi> “the blessing of the upright.” This expression features either an objective or subjective genitive. It may refer to the blessing God gives the upright (which will benefit society) or the blessing that the upright are to the city. The latter fits the parallelism best: The blessings are the beneficent words and deeds that the righteous perform.
2 sn The sage uses these verb forms in contrast with the following verse, which is present tense. The antithetic parallelism contrasts not just the subject (who finds vs. who misses) and the verb (to find vs. to harm) but also the state of the outcome. This person found life and continues in the benefit: “had found life.”
1 sn The chapter includes an exhortation to acquire wisdom (1-4a), a list of the benefits of wisdom (4b-9), a call to pursue a righteous lifestyle (10-13), a warning against a wicked lifestyle (14-19), and an exhortation to righteousness (20-27).
1 sn The chapter begins with an admonition to receive wisdom (1-4) and then traces the benefits: the knowledge of God and his protection (5-8), moral discernment for living (9-11), protection from evil men (12-15) and immoral women (16-19), and enablement for righteous living (20-22).
1 tn The infinitive construct with <span class="hebrew">לspan> (<span class="translit">lamedspan>) means “to discern” and introduces the fifth purpose of the book. It focuses on the benefits of proverbs from the perspective of the reader. By studying proverbs the reader will discern the hermeneutical key to understanding more and more proverbs.
3 sn The psalmist asks the <span class="smcaps">Lordspan> to demonstrate his <i>loyal love and faithfulnessi>, not simply so Israel may benefit, but primarily so that the <span class="smcaps">Lordspan> will receive honor among the nations, who will recognize, contrary to their present view (see v. <data ref="Bible:Ps 115:2">2data>), that Israel’s God is committed to his people.
1 sn <i>Psalm 112i>. This wisdom psalm lists some of the benefits of living a godly life. The psalm is an acrostic. After the introductory call to praise, every poetic line (twenty-two in all) begins with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet.
6 sn The Hebrew words <span class="hebrew">טוֹבspan> (<span class="translit">tovspan>, “good”) and <span class="hebrew">רַעspan> (<span class="translit">raʿspan>, “evil”) have to do with what affects life. That which is good benefits people because it produces, promotes and protects life; that which is evil brings calamity and disaster, it harms, pains, or destroys life.
1 sn <i>We have no portion in David; no share in the son of Jessei>. Their point seems to be that they have no familial relationship with David that brings them any benefits or places upon them any obligations. They are being treated like outsiders.
2 tc The editors of <i>BHSi> prefer to follow the Greek, Syriac, and Latin and not read “for the <span class="smcaps">Lordspan>” here, but read a form of the verb “to be” instead. But the text makes more sense as it stands: The payment is to be made to the <span class="smcaps">Lordspan> for the benefit of the priests.
3 sn The exact meaning of this penalty clause is not certain. It could mean (1) that he will be executed, whether by God or by man, (2) that he will be excommunicated from sanctuary worship and/or community benefits, or (3) that his line will be terminated by God (i.e., extirpation). See also the note on <data ref="Bible:Le 7:20">Lev 7:20data>.
4 sn This proverb uses antithetic parallelism, presenting opposite people with opposite outcomes described by opposite verb forms. In contrast to how things may look at the moment, the sage assures the student about the future of the wicked using the imperfect verb. They may look like they are getting away free, but in the end they will not. On the other hand, using the perfect verb, he assures the student of the benefit that he has seen for the righteous—they have escaped. This is something that really has occurred and is prototypical of what can be expected. Further, by contrasting the evil person with the descendants of the righteous, the sage expands the range of benefit received from righteous living.
2 tn Some translations treat <span class="greek">πιστεύσαντεςspan> (<span class="translit">pisteusantesspan>) as a gnomic aorist (timeless statement) and thus equivalent to an English present tense: “and yet believe” (RSV). This may create an effective application of the passage to the modern reader, but the author is probably thinking of those people who had already believed without the benefit of seeing the risen Jesus, on the basis of reports by others or because of circumstantial evidence (see <data ref="Bible:Jn 20:8">John 20:8data>).
4 tn The address, “favored one” (a perfect participle, <i>Grki> “Oh one who is favored”) points to Mary as the recipient of God’s grace, not a bestower of it. She is a model saint in this passage, one who willingly receives God’s benefits. The Vulgate rendering “full of grace” suggests something more of Mary as a bestower of grace, but does not make sense here contextually.