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Psalms 22:3


22:3 You are holy;

you sit as king receiving the praises of Israel. 1 

Exodus 15:2


15:2 The Lord 2  is my strength and my song, 3 

and he has become my salvation.

This is my God, and I will praise him, 4 

my father’s God, and I will exalt him.

Revelation 5:6


5:6 Then 5  I saw standing in the middle of the throne 6  and of the four living creatures, and in the middle of the elders, a Lamb that appeared to have been killed. 7  He had 8  seven horns and seven eyes, which 9  are the seven 10  spirits of God 11  sent out into all the earth.

Revelation 5:9-13

5:9 They were singing a new song: 12 

“You are worthy to take the scroll

and to open its seals

because you were killed, 13 

and at the cost of your own blood 14  you have purchased 15  for God

persons 16  from every tribe, language, 17  people, and nation.

5:10 You have appointed 18  them 19  as a kingdom and priests 20  to serve 21  our God, and they will reign 22  on the earth.”

5:11 Then 23  I looked and heard the voice of many angels in a circle around the throne, as well as the living creatures and the elders. Their 24  number was ten thousand times ten thousand 25  – thousands times thousands – 5:12 all of whom 26  were singing 27  in a loud voice:

“Worthy is the lamb who was killed 28 

to receive power and wealth

and wisdom and might

and honor and glory and praise!”

5:13 Then 29  I heard every creature – in heaven, on earth, under the earth, in the sea, and all that is in them – singing: 30 

“To the one seated on the throne and to the Lamb

be praise, honor, glory, and ruling power 31  forever and ever!”

Psalms 40:1-3

Psalm 40 32 

For the music director; By David, a psalm.

40:1 I relied completely 33  on the Lord,

and he turned toward me

and heard my cry for help.

40:2 He lifted me out of the watery pit, 34 

out of the slimy mud. 35 

He placed my feet on a rock

and gave me secure footing. 36 

40:3 He gave me reason to sing a new song, 37 

praising our God. 38 

May many see what God has done,

so that they might swear allegiance to him and trust in the Lord! 39 

1 tn Heb “[O] one who sits [on] the praises of Israel.” The verb “receiving” is supplied in the translation for clarity. The metaphorical language pictures the Lord as sitting enthroned as king in his temple, receiving the praises that his people Israel offer up to him.

2 tn Heb “Yah.” Moses’ poem here uses a short form of the name Yahweh, traditionally rendered in English by “the LORD.”

3 tn The word וְזִמְרָת (vÿzimrat) is problematic. It probably had a suffix yod (י) that was accidentally dropped because of the yod (י) on the divine name following. Most scholars posit another meaning for the word. A meaning of “power” fits the line fairly well, forming a hendiadys with strength – “strength and power” becoming “strong power.” Similar lines are in Isa 12:2 and Ps 118:14. Others suggest “protection” or “glory.” However, there is nothing substantially wrong with “my song” in the line – only that it would be a nicer match if it had something to do with strength.

4 tn The word נָוָה (navah) occurs only here. It may mean “beautify, adorn” with praises (see BDB 627 s.v.). See also M. Dahood, “Exodus 15:2: ‘anwehu and Ugaritic snwt,” Bib 59 (1979): 260-61; and M. Klein, “The Targumic Tosefta to Exodus 15:2,” JJS 26 (1975): 61-67; and S. B. Parker, “Exodus 15:2 Again,” VT 21 (1971): 373-79.

5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

6 tn Perhaps, “in the middle of the throne area” (see L&N 83.10).

7 tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.” The phrase behind this translation is ὡς ἐσφαγμένον (Jw" ejsfagmenon). The particle ὡς is used in Greek generally for comparison, and in Revelation it is used often to describe the appearance of what the author saw. This phrase does not imply that the Lamb “appeared to have been killed” but in reality was not, because the wider context of the NT shows that in fact the Lamb, i.e., Jesus, was killed. See 13:3 for the only other occurrence of this phrase in the NT.

8 tn Grk “killed, having.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “he.”

9 sn The relative pronoun which is masculine, referring back to the eyes rather than to the horns.

10 tc There is good ms evidence for the inclusion of “seven” (ἑπτά, Jepta; Ì24 א 2053 2351 ÏK). There is equally good ms support for the omission of the term (A 1006 1611 ÏA pc). It may have been accidentally added due to its repeated presence in the immediately preceding phrases, or it may have been intentionally added to maintain the symmetry of the phrases or more likely to harmonize the phrase with 1:4; 3:1; 4:5. Or it may have been accidentally deleted by way of homoioteleuton (τὰ ἑπτά, ta Jepta). A decision is difficult in this instance. NA27 also does not find the problem easy to solve, placing the word in brackets to indicate doubts as to its authenticity.

11 sn See the note on the phrase the seven spirits of God in Rev 4:5.

12 tn The redundant participle λέγοντες (legontes) has not been translated here.

13 tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.”

14 tn The preposition ἐν (en) is taken to indicate price here, like the Hebrew preposition ב (bet) does at times. BDAG 329 s.v. ἐν 5.b states, “The ἐν which takes the place of the gen. of price is also instrumental ἠγόρασας ἐν τῷ αἵματί σου Rv 5:9 (cp. 1 Ch 21:24 ἀγοράζω ἐν ἀργυρίῳ).”

15 tc The Greek text as it stands above (i.e., the reading τῷ θεῷ [tw qew] alone) is found in codex A. א 2050 2344 Ï sy add the term “us” (ἡμᾶς, Jhmas), either before or after τῷ θεῷ, as an attempt to clarify the object of “purchased” (ἠγόρασας, hgorasa"). A few mss (1 vgms) delete the reference to God altogether and simply replace it with “us” (ἡμᾶς). This too is an attempt to remove ambiguity in the phrase and provide an object for “purchased.” The shorter reading, supported by the best witness for Revelation, best accounts for the other readings.

16 tn The word “persons” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

17 tn Grk “and language,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

18 tn The verb ἐποίησας (epoihsas) is understood to mean “appointed” here. For an example of this use, see Mark 3:14.

19 tc The vast majority of witnesses have αὐτούς (autous, “them”) here, while the Textus Receptus reads ἡμᾶς (Jhmas, “us”) with insignificant support (pc gig vgcl sa Prim Bea). There is no question that the original text read αὐτούς here.

20 tn The reference to “kingdom and priests” may be a hendiadys: “priestly kingdom.”

21 tn The words “to serve” are not in the Greek text, but are implied by the word “priests.”

22 tc The textual problem here between the present tense βασιλεύουσιν (basileuousin, “they are reigning”; so A 1006 1611 ÏK pc) and the future βασιλεύσουσιν (basileusousin, “they will reign”; so א 1854 2053 ÏA pc lat co) is a difficult one. Both readings have excellent support. On the one hand, the present tense seems to be the harder reading in this context. On the other hand, codex A elsewhere mistakes the future for the present (20:6). Further, the lunar sigma in uncial script could have been overlooked by some scribes, resulting in the present tense. All things considered, there is a slight preference for the future.

23 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

24 tn Grk “elders, and the number of them was.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

25 tn Or “myriads of myriads.” Although μυριάς (murias) literally means “10,000,” the point of the combination here may simply be to indicate an incalculably huge number. See L&N 60.9.

26 tn The words “all of whom” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied to indicate the resumption of the phrase “the voice of many angels” at the beginning of the verse.

27 tn Grk “saying.”

28 tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.”

29 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

30 tn Grk “saying.”

31 tn Or “dominion.”

32 sn Psalm 40. The psalmist combines a song of thanksgiving for a recent act of divine deliverance (vv. 1-11) with a confident petition for renewed divine intervention (vv. 12-17).

33 tn Heb “relying, I relied.” The infinitive absolute precedes the finite verbal form to emphasize the verbal idea. The emphasis is reflected in the translation through the adverb “completely.” Another option is to translate, “I waited patiently” (cf. NASB, NIV, NRSV).

34 tn Heb “cistern of roaring.” The Hebrew noun בּוֹר (bor, “cistern, pit”) is used metaphorically here of Sheol, the place of death, which is sometimes depicted as a raging sea (see Ps 18:4, 15-16). The noun שָׁאוֹן (shaon, “roaring”) refers elsewhere to the crashing sound of the sea’s waves (see Ps 65:7).

35 tn Heb “from the mud of mud.” The Hebrew phrase translated “slimy mud” employs an appositional genitive. Two synonyms are joined in a construct relationship to emphasize the single idea. For a detailed discussion of the grammatical point with numerous examples, see Y. Avishur, “Pairs of Synonymous Words in the Construct State (and in Appositional Hendiadys) in Biblical Hebrew,” Semitics 2 (1971): 17-81.

36 tn Heb “he established my footsteps.”

37 sn A new song was appropriate because the Lord had intervened in the psalmist’s experience in a fresh and exciting way.

38 tn Heb “and he placed in my mouth a new song, praise to our God.”

39 tn Heb “may many see and fear and trust in the Lord.” The translation assumes that the initial prefixed verbal form is a jussive (“may many see”), rather than an imperfect (“many will see”). The following prefixed verbal forms with vav (ו) conjunctive are taken as indicating purpose or result (“so that they might swear allegiance…and trust”) after the introductory jussive.

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