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Matthew 26:20-29

Context
26:20 When 1  it was evening, he took his place at the table 2  with the twelve. 3  26:21 And while they were eating he said, “I tell you the truth, 4  one of you will betray me.” 5  26:22 They 6  became greatly distressed 7  and each one began to say to him, “Surely not I, Lord?” 26:23 He 8  answered, “The one who has dipped his hand into the bowl with me 9  will betray me. 26:24 The Son of Man will go as it is written about him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would be better for him if he had never been born.” 26:25 Then 10  Judas, the one who would betray him, said, “Surely not I, Rabbi?” Jesus 11  replied, “You have said it yourself.”

The Lord’s Supper

26:26 While 12  they were eating, Jesus took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it, gave it to his disciples, and said, “Take, eat, this is my body.” 26:27 And after taking the cup and giving thanks, he gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you, 26:28 for this is my blood, the blood 13  of the covenant, 14  that is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. 26:29 I 15  tell you, from now on I will not drink of this fruit 16  of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.”

Mark 14:17-25

Context

14:17 Then, 17  when it was evening, he came to the house 18  with the twelve. 14:18 While they were at the table 19  eating, Jesus said, “I tell you the truth, 20  one of you eating with me will betray me.” 21  14:19 They were distressed, and one by one said to him, “Surely not I?” 14:20 He said to them, “It is one of the twelve, one who dips his hand 22  with me into the bowl. 23  14:21 For the Son of Man will go as it is written about him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would be better for him if he had never been born.”

The Lord’s Supper

14:22 While they were eating, he took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it, gave it to them, and said, “Take it. This is my body.” 14:23 And after taking the cup and giving thanks, he gave it to them, and they all drank from it. 14:24 He said to them, “This is my blood, the blood 24  of the covenant, 25  that is poured out for many. 14:25 I tell you the truth, 26  I will no longer drink of the fruit 27  of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God.”

Luke 22:14-23

Context
The Lord’s Supper

22:14 Now 28  when the hour came, Jesus 29  took his place at the table 30  and the apostles joined 31  him. 22:15 And he said to them, “I have earnestly desired 32  to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. 22:16 For I tell you, I will not eat it again 33  until it is fulfilled 34  in the kingdom of God.” 35  22:17 Then 36  he took a cup, 37  and after giving thanks he said, “Take this and divide it among yourselves. 22:18 For I tell you that from now on I will not drink of the fruit 38  of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.” 39  22:19 Then 40  he took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body 41  which is given for you. 42  Do this in remembrance of me.” 22:20 And in the same way he took 43  the cup after they had eaten, 44  saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant 45  in my blood.

A Final Discourse

22:21 “But look, the hand of the one who betrays 46  me is with me on the table. 47  22:22 For the Son of Man is to go just as it has been determined, 48  but woe to that man by whom he is betrayed!” 22:23 So 49  they began to question one another as to which of them it could possibly be who would do this.

1 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

2 tn Grk “he was reclining at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

3 tc Many witnesses, some of them important, have μαθητῶν (maqhtwn, “disciples”; א A L W Δ Θ 33 892 1241 1424 pm lat) or μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ (maqhtwn autou, “his disciples”; 0281 pc it) after δώδεκα (dwdeka, “twelve”). However, such clarifications are typical scribal expansions to the text. Further, the shorter reading (the one that ends with δώδεκα) has strong support in Ì37vid,45vid B D K Γ Ë1,13 565 579 700 pm. Thus both internally and externally the reading that ends the verse with “the twelve” is to be preferred.

4 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

5 tn Or “will hand me over.”

6 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

7 tn The participle λυπούμενοι (lupoumenoi) has been translated as a finite verb to make the sequence of events clear in English.

8 tn Grk “answering, he said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

9 sn The one who has dipped his hand into the bowl with me. The point of Jesus’ comment here is not to identify the specific individual per se, but to indicate that it is one who was close to him – somebody whom no one would suspect. His comment serves to heighten the treachery of Judas’ betrayal.

10 tn Grk “answering, Judas.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to reflect the sequence of events in the narrative.

11 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

12 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

13 tn Grk “for this is my blood of the covenant that is poured out for many.” In order to avoid confusion about which is poured out, the translation supplies “blood” twice so that the following phrase clearly modifies “blood,” not “covenant.”

14 tc Although most witnesses read καινῆς (kainhs, “new”) here, this is evidently motivated by the parallel in Luke 22:20. Apart from the possibility of homoioteleuton, there is no good reason for the shorter reading to have arisen later on. But since it is found in such good and diverse witnesses (e.g., Ì37,45vid א B L Z Θ 0298vid 33 pc mae), the likelihood of homoioteleuton becomes rather remote.

sn Jesus’ death established the forgiveness promised in the new covenant of Jer 31:31. Jesus is reinterpreting the symbolism of the Passover meal, indicating the presence of a new era.

15 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

16 tn Grk “produce” (“the produce of the vine” is a figurative expression for wine).

17 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

18 tn The prepositional phrase “to the house” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied for clarity.

19 tn Grk “while they were reclined at the table.”

sn 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

20 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

21 tn Or “will hand me over”; Grk “one of you will betray me, the one who eats with me.”

22 tn Grk “one who dips with me.” The phrase “his hand” has been supplied in the translation for clarity.

23 sn One who dips with me in the bowl. The point of Jesus’ comment here is not to identify the specific individual per se, but to indicate that it is one who was close to him – somebody whom no one would suspect. His comment serves to heighten the treachery of Judas’ betrayal.

24 tn Grk “this is my blood of the covenant that is poured out for many.” In order to avoid confusion about which is poured out, the translation supplies “blood” twice so that the following phrase clearly modifies “blood,” not “covenant.”

25 tc Most mss (A Ë1,13 Ï lat sy) have καινῆς (kainh", “new”) before διαθήκης (diaqhkh", “covenant”), a reading that is almost surely influenced by the parallel passage in Luke 22:20. Further, the construction τὸ τῆς καινῆς διαθήκης (to th" kainh" diaqhkh"), in which the resumptive article τό (referring back to τὸ αἷμα [to |aima, “the blood”]) is immediately followed by the genitive article, is nowhere else used in Mark except for constructions involving a genitive of relationship (cf. Mark 2:14; 3:17, 18; 16:1). Thus, on both transcriptional and intrinsic grounds, this reading looks to be a later addition (which may have derived from τὸ τῆς διαθήκης of D* W 2427). The most reliable mss, along with several others (א B C Dc L Θ Ψ 565), lack καινῆς. This reading is strongly preferred.

sn Jesus’ death established the forgiveness promised in the new covenant of Jer 31:31. Jesus is reinterpreting the symbolism of the Passover meal, indicating the presence of a new era.

26 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

27 tn Grk “the produce” (“the produce of the vine” is a figurative expression for wine).

28 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

29 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

30 tn Grk “reclined at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

31 tn Grk “the apostles with him.”

32 tn This phrase parallels a Hebrew infinitive absolute and serves to underline Jesus’ enthusiasm for holding this meal (BDF §198.6).

33 tn Although the word “again” is not in the Greek text, it is supplied to indicate that Jesus did indeed partake of this Passover meal, as statements in v. 18 suggest (“from now on”). For more complete discussion see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1720.

34 sn Jesus looked to a celebration in the kingdom to come when the Passover is fulfilled. This reference could well suggest that some type of commemorative sacrifice and meal will be celebrated then, as the antecedent is the Passover sacrifice. The reference is not to the Lord’s supper as some argue, but the Passover.

35 sn The kingdom of God here refers to the kingdom in all its power. See Luke 17:20-37.

36 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

37 sn Then he took a cup. Only Luke mentions two cups at this meal; the other synoptic gospels (Matt, Mark) mention only one. This is the first of the two. It probably refers to the first cup in the traditional Passover meal, which today has four cups (although it is debated whether the fourth cup was used in the 1st century).

38 tn Grk “the produce” (“the produce of the vine” is a figurative expression for wine).

39 sn Until the kingdom of God comes is a reference to the kingdom in all its power. See Luke 17:20-37. Jesus awaits celebration with the arrival of full kingdom blessing.

40 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

41 tc Some important Western mss (D it) lack the words from this point to the end of v. 20. However, the authenticity of these verses is very likely. The inclusion of the second cup is the harder reading, since it differs from Matt 26:26-29 and Mark 14:22-25, and it has much better ms support. It is thus easier to explain the shorter reading as a scribal accident or misunderstanding. Further discussion of this complicated problem (the most difficult in Luke) can be found in TCGNT 148-50.

42 sn The language of the phrase given for you alludes to Christ’s death in our place. It is a powerful substitutionary image of what he did for us.

43 tn The words “he took” are not in the Greek text at this point, but are an understood repetition from v. 19.

44 tn The phrase “after they had eaten” translates the temporal infinitive construction μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι (meta to deipnhsai), where the verb δειπνέω (deipnew) means “to eat a meal” or “to have a meal.”

45 sn Jesus’ death established the forgiveness promised in the new covenant of Jer 31:31. Jesus is reinterpreting the symbolism of the Passover meal, indicating the presence of a new era.

46 sn The one who betrays me. Jesus knows about Judas and what he has done.

47 sn The point of Jesus’ comment here is not to identify the specific individual per se, but to indicate that it is one who was close to him – somebody whom no one would suspect. His comment serves to heighten the treachery of Judas’ betrayal.

48 sn Jesus’ death has been determined as a part of God’s plan (Acts 2:22-24).

49 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ comments: The disciples begin wondering who would betray him.



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