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Hebrews 5:11-14

Context
The Need to Move on to Maturity

5:11 On this topic we have much to say 1  and it is difficult to explain, since you have become sluggish 2  in hearing. 5:12 For though you should in fact be teachers by this time, 3  you need someone to teach you the beginning elements of God’s utterances. 4  You have gone back to needing 5  milk, not 6  solid food. 5:13 For everyone who lives on milk is inexperienced in the message of righteousness, because he is an infant. 5:14 But solid food is for the mature, whose perceptions are trained by practice to discern both good and evil.

1 Timothy 1:19-20

Context
1:19 To do this 7  you must hold firmly to faith and a good conscience, which some have rejected and so have suffered shipwreck in regard to the faith. 1:20 Among these are Hymenaeus and Alexander, whom I handed over to Satan 8  to be taught not to blaspheme.

2 Timothy 2:18

Context
2:18 They have strayed from the truth 9  by saying that the resurrection has already occurred, and they are undermining some people’s faith.

2 Peter 2:2

Context
2:2 And many will follow their debauched lifestyles. 10  Because of these false teachers, 11  the way of truth will be slandered. 12 

2 Peter 2:14

Context
2:14 Their eyes, 13  full of adultery, 14  never stop sinning; 15  they entice 16  unstable people. 17  They have trained their hearts for greed, these cursed children! 18 

2 Peter 2:19

Context
2:19 Although these false teachers promise 19  such people 20  freedom, they themselves are enslaved to 21  immorality. 22  For whatever a person succumbs to, to that he is enslaved. 23 

1 tn Grk “concerning which the message for us is great.”

2 tn Or “dull.”

3 tn Grk “because of the time.”

4 tn Grk “the elements of the beginning of the oracles of God.”

5 tn Grk “you have come to have a need for.”

6 tc ‡ Most texts, including some early and important ones (א2 A B* D Ψ 0122 0278 1881 Ï sy Cl), have καί (kai, “and”) immediately preceding οὐ (ou, “not”), but other equally significant witnesses (Ì46 א* B2 C 33 81 1739 lat Or Did) lack the conjunction. As it was a natural tendency for scribes to add a coordinating conjunction, the καί appears to be a motivated reading. On balance, it is probably best to regard the shorter reading as authentic. NA27 has καί in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

7 tn In Greek this continues the same sentence from v. 18, a participle showing the means by which Timothy will accomplish his task: Grk “fight the good fight, holding firmly…”

8 sn The expression handed over to Satan refers to an act of discipline mentioned by Paul here and in 1 Cor 5:5, with a remedial goal, not a punitive one. The Greek word translated taught in this verse is used of “discipline, training of children” to lead them to correct behavior.

9 tn Grk “have deviated concerning the truth.”

10 tn “Debauched lifestyles” is literally “licentiousnesses,” “sensualities,” “debaucheries.”

11 tn Grk “because of whom,” introducing a subordinate clause to the first part of the verse.

12 tn Or “blasphemed,” “reviled,” “treated with contempt.”

13 tn Grk “having eyes.” See note on “men” at the beginning of v. 12.

14 tn Grk “full of an adulteress.”

15 tn Grk “and unceasing from sin.” Some translate this “insatiable for sin,” but such a translation is based on a textual variant with inadequate support.

16 tn Grk “enticing.” See note on “men” at the beginning of v. 12.

17 tn “People” is literally “souls.” The term ψυχή (yuch) can refer to one’s soul, one’s life, or oneself.

18 tn Grk “having hearts trained in greediness, children of cursing.” The participles continue the general description of the false teachers, without strong grammatical connection. The genitive κατάρας (kataras, “of cursing”) is taken attributively here.

19 tn Verse 19 is a subordinate clause in Greek. The masculine nominative participle “promising” (ἐπαγγελλόμενοι, epangellomenoi) refers back to the subject of vv. 17-18. At the same time, it functions subordinately to the following participle, ὑπάρχοντες (Juparconte", “while being”).

20 tn Grk “them.”

21 tn Grk “slaves of.” See the note on the word “slave” in 1:1.

22 tn Or “corruption,” “depravity.” Verse 19 constitutes a subordinate clause to v. 18 in Greek. The main verbal components of these two verses are: “uttering…they entice…promising…being (enslaved).” The main verb is (they) entice. The three participles are adverbial and seem to indicate an instrumental relation (by uttering), a concessive relation (although promising), and a temporal relation (while being [enslaved]). For the sake of English usage, in the translation of the text this is broken down into two sentences.

23 tn Grk “for by what someone is overcome, to this he is enslaved.”



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