4:7 (Now this used to be the customary way to finalize a transaction involving redemption in Israel: 1 A man would remove his sandal and give it to the other party. 2 This was a legally binding act 3 in Israel.) 4:8 So the guardian said to Boaz, “You may acquire it,” and he removed his sandal. 4 4:9 Then Boaz said to the leaders and all the people, “You are witnesses today that I have acquired from Naomi all that belonged to Elimelech, Kilion, and Mahlon. 4:10 I have also acquired Ruth the Moabite, the wife of Mahlon, as my wife to raise up a descendant who will inherit his property 5 so the name of the deceased might not disappear 6 from among his relatives and from his village. 7 You are witnesses today.” 4:11 All the people who were at the gate and the elders replied, “We are witnesses. May the Lord make the woman who is entering your home like Rachel and Leah, both of whom built up the house of Israel! May 8 you prosper 9 in Ephrathah and become famous 10 in Bethlehem. 11 4:12 May your family 12 become like the family of Perez 13 – whom Tamar bore to Judah – through the descendants 14 the Lord gives you by this young woman.”
4:13 So Boaz married Ruth and had sexual relations with her. 15 The Lord enabled her to conceive 16 and she gave birth to a son. 4:14 The village women said to Naomi, “May the Lord be praised because he has not left you without a guardian 17 today! May he 18 become famous in Israel! 19 4:15 He will encourage you and provide for you when you are old, 20 for your daughter-in-law, who loves you, has given him birth. She 21 is better to you than seven sons!” 4:16 Naomi took the child and placed him on her lap; 22 she became his caregiver. 23 4:17 The neighbor women named him, saying, “A son has been born to Naomi.” They named him Obed. 24 Now he became the father of Jesse – David’s father!
1 tn Heb “and this formerly in Israel concerning redemption and concerning a transfer to ratify every matter.”
2 tn Heb “a man removed his sandal and gave [it] to his companion”; NASB “gave it to another”; NIV, NRSV, CEV “to the other.”
3 tn Heb “the legal witness”; KJV “a testimony”; ASV, NASB “the manner (form NAB) of attestation.”
4 tc The LXX adds “and gave it to him” (cf. TEV, CEV), which presupposes the reading ויתן לו. This seems to be a clarifying addition (see v. 7), but it is possible the scribe’s eye jumped from the final vav (ו) on נַעֲלוֹ (na’alo, “his sandal”) to the final vav (ו) on לוֹ (lo, “to him”), accidentally omitting the intervening letters.
5 tn Heb “in order to raise up the name of the deceased over his inheritance” (NASB similar).
6 tn Heb “be cut off” (so NASB, NRSV); NAB “may not perish.”
7 tn Heb “and from the gate of his place” (so KJV, ASV); NASB “from the court of his birth place”; NIV “from the town records.”
8 tn Following the jussive, the imperative with prefixed vav indicates purpose or result.
9 tn The phrase וַעֲשֵׂה־חַיִל (va’aseh-khayil, literally, “do strength”) has been variously translated: (1) financial prosperity: “may you become rich” (TEV), “may you be a rich man” (CEV), “may you achieve wealth” (NASB), “may you prosper” (NKJV, NJPS); (2) social prominence: “may you become powerful” (NCV), “may you have standing” (NIV), “may you be great” (NLT), “may you do well” (NAB); (3) reproductive fertility: “may you produce children” (NRSV); and (4) social activity: “may you do a worthy deed” (REB).
10 tc Heb “and call a name.” This statement appears to be elliptical. Usually the person named and the name itself follow this expression. Perhaps וּקְרָא־שֵׁם (uqÿra’-shem) should be emended to וְיִקָּרֵא־שֵׁם (vÿyiqqare’-shem), “and your name will be called out,” that is, “perpetuated” (see Gen 48:16, cf. also Ruth 4:14b). The omission of the suffix with “name” could be explained as virtual haplography (note the letter bet [ב], which is similar to kaf [כ], at the beginning of the next word). The same explanation could account for the omission of the prefixed yod (י) on the verb “call” (yod [י] and vav [ו] are similar in appearance). Whether one reads the imperative (the form in the MT) or the jussive (the emended form), the construction indicates purpose or result following the earlier jussive “may he make.”
12 tn Heb “your house” (so NAB, NASB, NRSV).
13 tn Heb “and may your house be like the house of Perez, whom Tamar bore to Judah, from the offspring whom the
sn Perez is an appropriate comparison here, because (1) he was an ancestor of Boaz, (2) he was born to Tamar by a surrogate father (Judah) after the death of her husband, and (3) he had an unbroken line of male descendants extending over several generations (see vv. 18-22).
14 tn Heb “from the seed” (KJV, ASV both similar); NASB, NIV “through the offspring”; NRSV “through the children.”
15 tn Heb “and Boaz took Ruth and she became his wife and he went in to her.” Here the phrase “went in to her” (so NASB) is a euphemism for having sexual relations (cf. NCV); NLT “When he slept with her.”
16 tn Heb “gave her conception” (so KJV); NRSV “made her conceive”; NLT “enabled her to become pregnant.”
18 tn The “guardian” is the subject of the verb, as the next verse makes clear.
20 tn Heb “and he will become for you a restorer of life and a sustainer of your old age” (NASB similar).
21 tn Heb “who, she”; KJV “which is better to thee.”
22 tn Or “breast”; KJV, NRSV “in her bosom.”
23 tn Heb “his nurse,” but this refers to a dry nurse, not a medical attendant. Cf. NIV “and cared for him”; TEV “and took (+ good CEV) care of him.”