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Romans 4:18-22

Context
4:18 Against hope Abraham 1  believed 2  in hope with the result that he became the father of many nations 3  according to the pronouncement, 4 so will your descendants be.” 5  4:19 Without being weak in faith, he considered 6  his own body as dead 7  (because he was about one hundred years old) and the deadness of Sarah’s womb. 4:20 He 8  did not waver in unbelief about the promise of God but was strengthened in faith, giving glory to God. 4:21 He was 9  fully convinced that what God 10  promised he was also able to do. 4:22 So indeed it was credited to Abraham 11  as righteousness.

1 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Abraham) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

2 tn Grk “who against hope believed,” referring to Abraham. The relative pronoun was converted to a personal pronoun and, because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

3 sn A quotation from Gen 17:5.

4 tn Grk “according to that which had been spoken.”

5 sn A quotation from Gen 15:5.

6 tc Most mss (D F G Ψ 33 1881 Ï it) read “he did not consider” by including the negative particle (οὐ, ou), but others (א A B C 6 81 365 1506 1739 pc co) lack οὐ. The reading which includes the negative particle probably represents a scribal attempt to exalt the faith of Abraham by making it appear that his faith was so strong that he did not even consider the physical facts. But “here Paul does not wish to imply that faith means closing one’s eyes to reality, but that Abraham was so strong in faith as to be undaunted by every consideration” (TCGNT 451). Both on external and internal grounds, the reading without the negative particle is preferred.

7 tc ‡ Most witnesses (א A C D Ψ 33 Ï bo) have ἤδη (hdh, “already”) at this point in v. 19. But B F G 630 1739 1881 pc lat sa lack it. Since it appears to heighten the style of the narrative and since there is no easy accounting for an accidental omission, it is best to regard the shorter text as original. NA27 includes the word in brackets, indicating doubt as to its authenticity.

8 tn Grk “And he.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, δέ (de) has not been translated here.

9 tn Grk “and being.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

10 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

11 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Abraham) has been specified in the translation for clarity.



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