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Romans 11:25-32

Context

11:25 For I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, 1  so that you may not be conceited: A partial hardening has happened to Israel 2  until the full number 3  of the Gentiles has come in. 11:26 And so 4  all Israel will be saved, as it is written:

“The Deliverer will come out of Zion;

he will remove ungodliness from Jacob.

11:27 And this is my covenant with them, 5 

when I take away their sins.” 6 

11:28 In regard to the gospel they are enemies for your sake, but in regard to election they are dearly loved for the sake of the fathers. 11:29 For the gifts and the call of God are irrevocable. 11:30 Just as you were formerly disobedient to God, but have now received mercy due to their disobedience, 11:31 so they too have now been disobedient in order that, by the mercy shown to you, they too may now 7  receive mercy. 11:32 For God has consigned all people to disobedience so that he may show mercy to them all. 8 

1 tn Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:13.

2 tn Or “Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in.”

3 tn Grk “fullness.”

4 tn It is not clear whether the phrase καὶ οὕτως (kai Joutws, “and so”) is to be understood in a modal sense (“and in this way”) or in a temporal sense (“and in the end”). Neither interpretation is conclusive from a grammatical standpoint, and in fact the two may not be mutually exclusive. Some, like H. Hübner, who argue strongly against the temporal reading, nevertheless continue to give the phrase a temporal significance, saying that God will save all Israel in the end (Gottes Ich und Israel [FRLANT], 118).

5 sn A quotation from Isa 59:20-21.

6 sn A quotation from Isa 27:9; Jer 31:33-34.

7 tc Some important Alexandrian and Western mss (א B D*,c 1506 pc bo) read νῦν (nun, “now”) here. A few other mss (33 365 pc sa) have ὕστερον (Justeron, “finally”). mss that lack the word are Ì46 A D2 F G Ψ 1739 1881 Ï latt. External evidence slightly favors omission with good representatives from the major texttypes, and because of the alliance of Alexandrian and Byzantine mss (with the Byzantine going against its normal tendency to embrace the longer reading). Internally, scribes could have added νῦν here to give balance to the preceding clause (οὗτοι νῦν ἠπείθησαναὐτοὶ νῦν ἐλεηθῶσιν [|outoi nun hpeiqhsanautoi nun elehqwsin; “they have now been disobedient…they may now receive mercy”]). However, it seems much more likely that they would have deleted it because of its seeming inappropriateness in this context. That some witnesses have ὕστερον presupposes the presence of νῦν in their ancestors. A decision is difficult, but νῦν is slightly preferred, since it is the more difficult reading and is adequately represented in the mss.

8 tn Grk “to all”; “them” has been supplied for stylistic reasons.



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