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Revelation 4:6

4:6 and in front of the throne was something like a sea of glass, like crystal. 1 

In 2  the middle of the throne 3  and around the throne were four living creatures 4  full of eyes in front and in back.

Revelation 15:2


15:2 Then 5  I saw something like a sea of glass 6  mixed with fire, and those who had conquered 7  the beast and his image and the number of his name. They were standing 8  by 9  the sea of glass, holding harps given to them by God. 10 

Revelation 21:18

21:18 The city’s 11  wall is made 12  of jasper and the city is pure gold, like transparent glass. 13 

Revelation 21:21

21:21 And the twelve gates are twelve pearls – each one of the gates is made from just one pearl! The 14  main street 15  of the city is pure gold, like transparent glass.

1 tn This could refer to rock crystal, but it is possible this refers to ice (an older meaning). See BDAG 571 s.v. κρύσταλλος.

2 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

3 tn Perhaps, “in the middle of the throne area” (see L&N 83.10).

4 tn On the meaning of ζῴον (zwon) BDAG 431 s.v. 2 states, “Of the four peculiar beings at God’s throne, whose description Rv 4:6-9 reminds one of the ζῷα in Ezk 1:5ff, the cherubim. S. also Rv 5:6, 8, 11, 14; 6:1, 3, 5-7; 7:11; 14:3; 15:7; 19:4.”

5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

6 sn See Rev 4:6 where the sea of glass was mentioned previously.

7 tn Or “had been victorious over”; traditionally, “had overcome.”

8 tn Grk “of his name, standing.” A new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the words “They were.”

9 tn Or “on.” The preposition ἐπί (epi) with the accusative case could mean “on, at, by, near”; given the nature of this scene appearing in a vision, it is difficult to know precisely which the author of Revelation intended. See BDAG 363 s.v. ἐπί 1.c.γ, “At, by, near someone or someth.

10 tn Grk “harps of God.” The phrase τοῦ θεοῦ (tou qeou) has been translated as a genitive of agency.

11 tn Grk “and its wall”; the referent of the pronoun (the city) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

12 tn The phrase ἡ ἐνδώμησις τοῦ τείχους (Jh endwmhsi" tou teicou") is difficult to translate precisely. BDAG 334 s.v. ἐνδώμησις states, “primary mng. ‘interior structure’; in our lit. prob.=construction, hence material τοῦ τείχους Rv 21:18.” The phrase could then be translated, “the foundation of the city wall was jasper” or “the material used for the wall of the city was jasper.” The latter alternative has been used in the translation because the text goes on to discuss the foundation in 21:19 (using the term θεμέλιος [qemelios]), which is somewhat redundant if the foundation is mentioned here.

13 tn Or “transparent crystal.” See L&N 6.222, which notes the emphasis is on transparency here. The same Greek word, καθαρός (kaqaros), means both “pure” (referring to the gold) and “transparent” (referring to the glass).

14 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

15 tn The Greek word πλατεῖα (plateia) refers to a major (broad) street (L&N 1.103).

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