4:6 and in front of the throne was something like a sea of glass, like crystal. 1
In 2 the middle of the throne 3 and around the throne were four living creatures 4 full of eyes in front and in back. 4:7 The 5 first living creature was like a lion, the 6 second creature like an ox, the third creature had a face like a man’s, and the fourth creature looked like an eagle flying. 4:8 Each one of the four living creatures had six wings 7 and was full of eyes all around and inside. 8 They never rest day or night, saying: 9
“Holy Holy Holy is the Lord God, the All-Powerful, 10
Who was and who is, and who is still to come!”
1 tn This could refer to rock crystal, but it is possible this refers to ice (an older meaning). See BDAG 571 s.v. κρύσταλλος.
2 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
3 tn Perhaps, “in the middle of the throne area” (see L&N 83.10).
4 tn On the meaning of ζῴον (zwon) BDAG 431 s.v. 2 states, “Of the four peculiar beings at God’s throne, whose description Rv 4:6-9 reminds one of the ζῷα in Ezk 1:5ff, the cherubim. S. also Rv 5:6, 8, 11, 14; 6:1, 3, 5-7; 7:11; 14:3; 15:7; 19:4.”
5 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
6 tn Both here and before the phrase “the third,” καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
7 tn Grk “six wings apiece,” but this is redundant with “each one” in English.
8 tn Some translations render ἔσωθεν (eswqen) as “under [its] wings,” but the description could also mean “filled all around on the outside and on the inside with eyes.” Since the referent is not available to the interpreter, the exact force is difficult to determine.
9 tn Or “They never stop saying day and night.”
sn A quotation from (or an allusion to) Isa 6:3.
11 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.