Revelation 1:15

1:15 His feet were like polished bronze refined in a furnace, and his voice was like the roar of many waters.

Ezekiel 43:2

43:2 I saw the glory of the God of Israel coming from the east; the sound was like that of rushing water; and the earth radiated his glory.

tn The precise meaning of the term translated “polished bronze” (χαλκολιβάνῳ, calkolibanw), which appears nowhere else in Greek literature outside of the book of Revelation (see 2:18), is uncertain. Without question it is some sort of metal. BDAG 1076 s.v. χαλκολίβανον suggests “fine brass/bronze.” L&N 2.57 takes the word to refer to particularly valuable or fine bronze, but notes that the emphasis here and in Rev 2:18 is more on the lustrous quality of the metal.

tn Or “that has been heated in a furnace until it glows.”

tn Grk “sound,” but the idea is closer to the roar of a waterfall or rapids.

tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

sn This same title appears in 8:4; 9:3; 10:19; and 11:22.

sn Earlier Ezekiel had observed God leaving the temple to the east (11:23).

sn See Ezek 1:24; Rev 1:15; 14:2; 19:6.

tn Heb “shone from.”