1 tn The precise meaning of the term translated “polished bronze” (χαλκολιβάνῳ, calkolibanw), which appears nowhere else in Greek literature outside of the book of Revelation (see 2:18), is uncertain. Without question it is some sort of metal. BDAG 1076 s.v. χαλκολίβανον suggests “fine brass/bronze.” L&N 2.57 takes the word to refer to particularly valuable or fine bronze, but notes that the emphasis here and in Rev 2:18 is more on the lustrous quality of the metal.
2 tn Or “that has been heated in a furnace until it glows.”
3 tn Grk “sound,” but the idea is closer to the roar of a waterfall or rapids.
4 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.
5 sn This same title appears in 8:4; 9:3; 10:19; and 11:22.
6 sn Earlier Ezekiel had observed God leaving the temple to the east (11:23).
7 sn See Ezek 1:24; Rev 1:15; 14:2; 19:6.
8 tn Heb “shone from.”