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Revelation 1:15

Context
1:15 His feet were like polished bronze 1  refined 2  in a furnace, and his voice was like the roar 3  of many waters.

Revelation 9:2

Context
9:2 He 4  opened the shaft of the abyss and smoke rose out of it 5  like smoke from a giant furnace. The 6  sun and the air were darkened with smoke from the shaft.

1 tn The precise meaning of the term translated “polished bronze” (χαλκολιβάνῳ, calkolibanw), which appears nowhere else in Greek literature outside of the book of Revelation (see 2:18), is uncertain. Without question it is some sort of metal. BDAG 1076 s.v. χαλκολίβανον suggests “fine brass/bronze.” L&N 2.57 takes the word to refer to particularly valuable or fine bronze, but notes that the emphasis here and in Rev 2:18 is more on the lustrous quality of the metal.

2 tn Or “that has been heated in a furnace until it glows.”

3 tn Grk “sound,” but the idea is closer to the roar of a waterfall or rapids.

4 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

5 tn Grk “the shaft,” but since this would be somewhat redundant in English, the pronoun “it” is used here.

6 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.



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