NETBible KJV GRK-HEB XRef Arts Hymns
  Discovery Box

Revelation 1:1--17:18

Context
The Prologue

1:1 The revelation of Jesus Christ, 1  which God gave him to show his servants 2  what must happen very soon. 3  He made it clear 4  by sending his angel to his servant 5  John, 1:2 who then 6  testified to everything that he saw concerning the word of God and the testimony about 7  Jesus Christ. 1:3 Blessed is the one who reads the words of this 8  prophecy aloud, 9  and blessed are 10  those who hear and obey 11  the things written in it, because the time is near! 12 

1:4 From John, 13  to the seven churches that are in the province of Asia: 14  Grace and peace to you 15  from “he who is,” 16  and who was, and who is still to come, 17  and from the seven spirits who are before his throne, 1:5 and from Jesus Christ – the faithful 18  witness, 19  the firstborn from among the dead, the ruler over the kings of the earth. To the one who loves us and has set us free 20  from our sins at the cost of 21  his own blood 1:6 and has appointed 22  us as a kingdom, 23  as priests 24  serving his God and Father – to him be the glory and the power for ever and ever! 25  Amen.

1:7 (Look! He is returning with the clouds, 26 

and every eye will see him,

even 27  those who pierced him, 28 

and all the tribes 29  on the earth will mourn because 30  of him.

This will certainly come to pass! 31  Amen.) 32 

1:8 “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” 33  says the Lord God – the one who is, and who was, and who is still to come – the All-Powerful! 34 

1:9 I, John, your brother and the one who shares 35  with you in the persecution, kingdom, and endurance that 36  are in Jesus, was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony about Jesus. 37  1:10 I was in the Spirit 38  on the Lord’s Day 39  when 40  I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet, 1:11 saying: “Write in a book what you see and send it to the seven churches – to Ephesus, 41  Smyrna, 42  Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea.”

1:12 I 43  turned to see whose voice was speaking to me, 44  and when I did so, 45  I saw seven golden lampstands, 1:13 and in the midst of the lampstands was one like a son of man. 46  He was dressed in a robe extending down to his feet and he wore a wide golden belt 47  around his chest. 1:14 His 48  head and hair were as white as wool, even as white as snow, 49  and his eyes were like a fiery 50  flame. 1:15 His feet were like polished bronze 51  refined 52  in a furnace, and his voice was like the roar 53  of many waters. 1:16 He held 54  seven stars in his right hand, and a sharp double-edged sword extended out of his mouth. His 55  face shone like the sun shining at full strength. 1:17 When 56  I saw him I fell down at his feet as though I were dead, but 57  he placed his right hand on me and said: “Do not be afraid! I am the first and the last, 1:18 and the one who lives! I 58  was dead, but look, now I am alive – forever and ever – and I hold the keys of death and of Hades! 59  1:19 Therefore write what you saw, what is, and what will be after these things. 60  1:20 The mystery of the seven stars that you saw in my right hand and the seven golden lampstands is this: 61  The seven stars are the angels 62  of the seven churches and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.

To the Church in Ephesus

2:1 “To the angel of the church in Ephesus, 63  write the following: 64 

“This is the solemn pronouncement of 65  the one who has a firm grasp on 66  the seven stars in his right hand 67  – the one who walks among the seven golden 68  lampstands: 2:2 ‘I know your works as well as your 69  labor and steadfast endurance, and that you cannot tolerate 70  evil. You have even put to the test 71  those who refer to themselves as apostles (but are not), and have discovered that they are false. 2:3 I am also aware 72  that you have persisted steadfastly, 73  endured much for the sake of my name, and have not grown weary. 2:4 But I have this against you: You have departed 74  from your first love! 2:5 Therefore, remember from what high state 75  you have fallen and repent! Do 76  the deeds you did at the first; 77  if not, I will come to you and remove your lampstand from its place – that is, if you do not repent. 78  2:6 But you do have this going for you: 79  You hate what the Nicolaitans 80  practice 81  – practices I also hate. 2:7 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To the one who conquers, 82  I will permit 83  him to eat from the tree of life that is 84  in the paradise of God.’ 85 

To the Church in Smyrna

2:8 “To 86  the angel of the church in Smyrna write the following: 87 

“This is the solemn pronouncement of 88  the one who is the first and the last, the one who was dead, but 89  came to life: 2:9 ‘I know the distress you are suffering 90  and your poverty (but you are rich). I also know 91  the slander against you 92  by those who call themselves Jews and really are not, but are a synagogue 93  of Satan. 2:10 Do not be afraid of the things you are about to suffer. The devil is about to have some of you thrown 94  into prison so you may be tested, 95  and you will experience suffering 96  for ten days. Remain faithful even to the point of death, and I will give you the crown that is life itself. 97  2:11 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches. The one who conquers 98  will in no way be harmed by the second death.’

To the Church in Pergamum

2:12 “To 99  the angel of the church in Pergamum write the following: 100 

“This is the solemn pronouncement of 101  the one who has the sharp double-edged sword: 102  2:13 ‘I know 103  where you live – where Satan’s throne is. Yet 104  you continue to cling 105  to my name and you have not denied your 106  faith in me, 107  even in the days of Antipas, my faithful witness, 108  who was killed in your city 109  where Satan lives. 2:14 But I have a few things against you: You have some people there who follow the teaching of Balaam, 110  who instructed Balak to put a stumbling block 111  before the people 112  of Israel so they would eat food sacrificed to idols and commit sexual immorality. 113  2:15 In the same way, there are also some among you who follow the teaching of the Nicolaitans. 114  2:16 Therefore, 115  repent! If not, I will come against you quickly and make war against those people 116  with the sword of my mouth. 2:17 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To the one who conquers, 117  I will give him some of the hidden manna, and I will give him a white 118  stone, 119  and on that stone will be written a new name that no one can understand 120  except the one who receives it.’

To the Church in Thyatira

2:18 “To 121  the angel of the church in Thyatira write the following: 122 

“This is the solemn pronouncement of 123  the Son of God, the one who has eyes like a fiery flame 124  and whose feet are like polished bronze: 125  2:19 ‘I know your deeds: your love, faith, 126  service, and steadfast endurance. 127  In fact, 128  your more recent deeds are greater than your earlier ones. 2:20 But I have this against you: You tolerate that 129  woman 130  Jezebel, 131  who calls herself a prophetess, and by her teaching deceives 132  my servants 133  to commit sexual immorality and to eat food sacrificed to idols. 134  2:21 I 135  have given her time to repent, but 136  she is not willing to repent of her sexual immorality. 2:22 Look! I am throwing her onto a bed of violent illness, 137  and those who commit adultery with her into terrible suffering, 138  unless they repent of her deeds. 2:23 Furthermore, I will strike her followers 139  with a deadly disease, 140  and then all the churches will know that I am the one who searches minds and hearts. I will repay 141  each one of you 142  what your deeds deserve. 143  2:24 But to the rest of you in Thyatira, all who do not hold to this teaching 144  (who have not learned the so-called “deep secrets 145  of Satan”), to you I say: I do not put any additional burden on you. 2:25 However, hold on to what you have until I come. 2:26 And to the one who conquers 146  and who continues in 147  my deeds until the end, I will give him authority over the nations 148 

2:27 he 149  will rule 150  them with an iron rod 151 

and like clay jars he will break them to pieces, 152 

2:28 just as I have received the right to rule 153  from my Father – and I will give him the morning star. 154  2:29 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches.’

To the Church in Sardis

3:1 “To 155  the angel of the church in Sardis write the following: 156 

“This is the solemn pronouncement of 157  the one who holds 158  the seven spirits of God and the seven stars: ‘I know your deeds, that you have a reputation 159  that you are alive, but 160  in reality 161  you are dead. 3:2 Wake up then, and strengthen what remains that was about 162  to die, because I have not found your deeds complete 163  in the sight 164  of my God. 3:3 Therefore, remember what you received and heard, 165  and obey it, 166  and repent. If you do not wake up, I will come like a thief, and you will never 167  know at what hour I will come against 168  you. 3:4 But you have a few individuals 169  in Sardis who have not stained 170  their clothes, and they will walk with me dressed 171  in white, because they are worthy. 3:5 The one who conquers 172  will be dressed like them 173  in white clothing, 174  and I will never 175  erase 176  his name from the book of life, but 177  will declare 178  his name before my Father and before his angels. 3:6 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches.’

To the Church in Philadelphia

3:7 “To 179  the angel of the church in Philadelphia write the following: 180 

“This is the solemn pronouncement of 181  the Holy One, the True One, who holds the key of David, who opens doors 182  no one can shut, and shuts doors 183  no one can open: 3:8 ‘I know your deeds. (Look! I have put 184  in front of you an open door that no one can shut.) 185  I know 186  that you have little strength, 187  but 188  you have obeyed 189  my word and have not denied my name. 3:9 Listen! 190  I am going to make those people from the synagogue 191  of Satan – who say they are Jews yet 192  are not, but are lying – Look, I will make 193  them come and bow down 194  at your feet and acknowledge 195  that I have loved you. 3:10 Because you have kept 196  my admonition 197  to endure steadfastly, 198  I will also keep you from the hour of testing that is about to come on the whole world to test those who live on the earth. 3:11 I am coming soon. Hold on to what you have so that no one can take away 199  your crown. 200  3:12 The one who conquers 201  I will make 202  a pillar in the temple of my God, and he will never depart from it. I 203  will write on him the name of my God and the name of the city of my God (the new Jerusalem that comes down out of heaven from my God), 204  and my new name as well. 3:13 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches.’

To the Church in Laodicea

3:14 “To 205  the angel of the church in Laodicea write the following: 206 

“This is the solemn pronouncement of 207  the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the originator 208  of God’s creation: 3:15 ‘I know your deeds, that you are neither cold nor hot. 209  I wish you were either cold or hot! 3:16 So because you are lukewarm, and neither hot nor cold, I am going 210  to vomit 211  you out of my mouth! 3:17 Because you say, “I am rich and have acquired great wealth, 212  and need nothing,” but 213  do not realize that you are wretched, pitiful, 214  poor, blind, and naked, 3:18 take my advice 215  and buy gold from me refined by fire so you can become rich! Buy from me 216  white clothing so you can be clothed and your shameful nakedness 217  will not be exposed, and buy eye salve 218  to put on your eyes so you can see! 3:19 All those 219  I love, I rebuke and discipline. So be earnest and repent! 3:20 Listen! 220  I am standing at the door and knocking! If anyone hears my voice and opens the door I will come into his home 221  and share a meal with him, and he with me. 3:21 I will grant the one 222  who conquers 223  permission 224  to sit with me on my throne, just as I too conquered 225  and sat down with my Father on his throne. 3:22 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches.’”

The Amazing Scene in Heaven

4:1 After these things I looked, and there was 226  a door standing open in heaven! 227  And the first voice I had heard speaking to me 228  like a trumpet 229  said: “Come up here so that 230  I can show you what must happen after these things.” 4:2 Immediately I was in the Spirit, 231  and 232  a throne was standing 233  in heaven with someone seated on it! 4:3 And the one seated on it was like jasper 234  and carnelian 235  in appearance, and a rainbow looking like it was made of emerald 236  encircled the throne. 4:4 In 237  a circle around the throne were twenty-four other thrones, and seated on those thrones were twenty-four elders. They were 238  dressed in white clothing and had golden crowns 239  on their heads. 4:5 From 240  the throne came out flashes of lightning and roaring 241  and crashes of thunder. Seven flaming torches, which are the seven spirits of God, 242  were burning in front of the throne 4:6 and in front of the throne was something like a sea of glass, like crystal. 243 

In 244  the middle of the throne 245  and around the throne were four living creatures 246  full of eyes in front and in back. 4:7 The 247  first living creature was like a lion, the 248  second creature like an ox, the third creature had a face like a man’s, and the fourth creature looked like an eagle flying. 4:8 Each one of the four living creatures had six wings 249  and was full of eyes all around and inside. 250  They never rest day or night, saying: 251 

Holy Holy Holy is the Lord God, the All-Powerful, 252 

Who was and who is, and who is still to come!”

4:9 And whenever the living creatures give glory, honor, 253  and thanks to the one who sits on the throne, who lives forever and ever, 4:10 the twenty-four elders throw themselves to the ground 254  before the one who sits on the throne and worship the one who lives forever and ever, and they offer their crowns 255  before his 256  throne, saying:

4:11 “You are worthy, our Lord and God,

to receive glory and honor and power,

since you created all things,

and because of your will they existed and were created!” 257 

The Opening of the Scroll

5:1 Then 258  I saw in the right hand of the one who was seated on the throne a scroll written on the front and back 259  and sealed with seven seals. 260  5:2 And I saw a powerful angel proclaiming in a loud voice: “Who is worthy to open the scroll and to break its seals?” 5:3 But 261  no one in heaven or on earth or under the earth was able to open the scroll or look into it. 5:4 So 262  I began weeping bitterly 263  because no one was found who was worthy to open the scroll or to look into it. 5:5 Then 264  one of the elders said 265  to me, “Stop weeping! 266  Look, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the root of David, has conquered; 267  thus he can open 268  the scroll and its seven seals.”

5:6 Then 269  I saw standing in the middle of the throne 270  and of the four living creatures, and in the middle of the elders, a Lamb that appeared to have been killed. 271  He had 272  seven horns and seven eyes, which 273  are the seven 274  spirits of God 275  sent out into all the earth. 5:7 Then 276  he came and took the scroll 277  from the right hand of the one who was seated on the throne, 5:8 and when he had taken the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders threw themselves to the ground 278  before the Lamb. Each 279  of them had a harp and golden bowls full of incense (which are the prayers of the saints). 280  5:9 They were singing a new song: 281 

“You are worthy to take the scroll

and to open its seals

because you were killed, 282 

and at the cost of your own blood 283  you have purchased 284  for God

persons 285  from every tribe, language, 286  people, and nation.

5:10 You have appointed 287  them 288  as a kingdom and priests 289  to serve 290  our God, and they will reign 291  on the earth.”

5:11 Then 292  I looked and heard the voice of many angels in a circle around the throne, as well as the living creatures and the elders. Their 293  number was ten thousand times ten thousand 294  – thousands times thousands – 5:12 all of whom 295  were singing 296  in a loud voice:

“Worthy is the lamb who was killed 297 

to receive power and wealth

and wisdom and might

and honor and glory and praise!”

5:13 Then 298  I heard every creature – in heaven, on earth, under the earth, in the sea, and all that is in them – singing: 299 

“To the one seated on the throne and to the Lamb

be praise, honor, glory, and ruling power 300  forever and ever!”

5:14 And the four living creatures were saying “Amen,” and the elders threw themselves to the ground 301  and worshiped.

The Seven Seals

6:1 I looked on when the Lamb opened one of the seven seals, and I heard one of the four living creatures saying with a thunderous voice, 302  “Come!” 303  6:2 So 304  I looked, 305  and here came 306  a white horse! The 307  one who rode it 308  had a bow, and he was given a crown, 309  and as a conqueror 310  he rode out to conquer.

6:3 Then 311  when the Lamb 312  opened the second seal, I heard the second living creature saying, “Come!” 6:4 And another horse, fiery red, 313  came out, and the one who rode it 314  was granted permission 315  to take peace from the earth, so that people would butcher 316  one another, and he was given a huge sword.

6:5 Then 317  when the Lamb opened the third seal I heard the third living creature saying, “Come!” So 318  I looked, 319  and here came 320  a black horse! The 321  one who rode it 322  had a balance scale 323  in his hand. 6:6 Then 324  I heard something like a voice from among the four living creatures saying, “A quart 325  of wheat will cost a day’s pay 326  and three quarts of barley will cost a day’s pay. But 327  do not damage the olive oil and the wine!”

6:7 Then 328  when the Lamb opened the fourth seal I heard the voice of the fourth living creature saying, “Come!” 6:8 So 329  I looked 330  and here came 331  a pale green 332  horse! The 333  name of the one who rode it 334  was Death, and Hades followed right behind. 335  They 336  were given authority over a fourth of the earth, to kill its population with the sword, 337  famine, and disease, 338  and by the wild animals of the earth.

6:9 Now 339  when the Lamb opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those who had been violently killed 340  because of the word of God and because of the testimony they had given. 6:10 They 341  cried out with a loud voice, 342  “How long, 343  Sovereign Master, 344  holy and true, before you judge those who live on the earth and avenge our blood?” 6:11 Each 345  of them was given a long white robe and they were told to rest for a little longer, until the full number was reached 346  of both their fellow servants 347  and their brothers who were going to be killed just as they had been.

6:12 Then 348  I looked when the Lamb opened the sixth seal, and a huge 349  earthquake took place; the sun became as black as sackcloth made of hair, 350  and the full moon became blood red; 351  6:13 and the stars in the sky 352  fell to the earth like a fig tree dropping 353  its unripe figs 354  when shaken by a fierce 355  wind. 6:14 The sky 356  was split apart 357  like a scroll being rolled up, 358  and every mountain and island was moved from its place. 6:15 Then 359  the kings of the earth, the 360  very important people, the generals, 361  the rich, the powerful, and everyone, slave 362  and free, hid themselves in the caves and among the rocks of the mountains. 6:16 They 363  said to the mountains and to the rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of the one who is seated on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb, 364  6:17 because the great day of their 365  wrath has come, and who is able to withstand it?” 366 

The Sealing of the 144,000

7:1 After this I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding back the four winds of the earth so no wind could blow on the earth, on the sea, or on any tree. 7:2 Then 367  I saw another angel ascending from the east, 368  who had 369  the seal 370  of the living God. He 371  shouted out with a loud voice to the four angels who had been given permission 372  to damage the earth and the sea: 373  7:3 “Do not damage the earth or the sea or the trees until we have put a seal on the foreheads of the servants 374  of our God.” 7:4 Now 375  I heard the number of those who were marked with the seal, 376  one hundred and forty-four thousand, sealed from all 377  the tribes of the people of Israel: 378 

7:5 From the tribe of Judah, twelve thousand were sealed,

from the tribe of Reuben, twelve thousand,

from the tribe of Gad, twelve thousand,

7:6 from the tribe of Asher, twelve thousand,

from the tribe of Naphtali, twelve thousand,

from the tribe of Manasseh, twelve thousand,

7:7 from the tribe of Simeon, twelve thousand,

from the tribe of Levi, twelve thousand,

from the tribe of Issachar, twelve thousand,

7:8 from the tribe of Zebulun, twelve thousand,

from the tribe of Joseph, twelve thousand,

from the tribe of Benjamin, twelve thousand were sealed.

7:9 After these things I looked, and here was 379  an enormous crowd that no one could count, made up of persons from every nation, tribe, 380  people, and language, standing before the throne and before the Lamb dressed in long white robes, and with palm branches in their hands. 7:10 They were shouting out in a loud voice,

“Salvation belongs to our God, 381 

to the one seated on the throne, and to the Lamb!”

7:11 And all the angels stood 382  there in a circle around the throne and around the elders and the four living creatures, and they threw themselves down with their faces to the ground 383  before the throne and worshiped God, 7:12 saying,

“Amen! Praise and glory,

and wisdom and thanksgiving,

and honor and power and strength

be to our God for ever and ever. Amen!”

7:13 Then 384  one of the elders asked 385  me, “These dressed in long white robes – who are they and where have they come from?” 7:14 So 386  I said to him, “My lord, you know the answer.” 387  Then 388  he said to me, “These are the ones who have come out of the great tribulation. They 389  have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb! 7:15 For this reason they are before the throne of God, and they serve 390  him day and night in his temple, and the one seated on the throne will shelter them. 391  7:16 They will never go hungry or be thirsty again, and the sun will not beat down on them, nor any burning heat, 392  7:17 because the Lamb in the middle of the throne will shepherd them and lead them to springs of living water, and God will wipe away every tear from their eyes.” 393 

The Seventh Seal

8:1 Now 394  when the Lamb 395  opened the seventh seal there was silence in heaven for about half an hour. 8:2 Then 396  I saw the seven angels who stand before God, and seven trumpets were given to them. 8:3 Another 397  angel holding 398  a golden censer 399  came and was stationed 400  at the altar. A 401  large amount of incense was given to him to offer up, with the prayers of all the saints, on the golden altar that is before the throne. 8:4 The 402  smoke coming from the incense, 403  along with the prayers of the saints, ascended before God from the angel’s hand. 8:5 Then 404  the angel took the censer, filled it with fire from the altar, and threw it on the earth, and there were crashes of thunder, roaring, 405  flashes of lightning, and an earthquake.

8:6 Now 406  the seven angels holding 407  the seven trumpets prepared to blow them.

8:7 The 408  first angel blew his trumpet, and there was hail and fire mixed with blood, and it was thrown at the earth so that 409  a third of the earth was burned up, a third of the trees were burned up, and all the green grass was burned up.

8:8 Then 410  the second angel blew his trumpet, and something like a great mountain of burning fire was thrown into the sea. A 411  third of the sea became blood, 8:9 and a third of the creatures 412  living in the sea died, and a third of the ships were completely destroyed. 413 

8:10 Then 414  the third angel blew his trumpet, and a huge star burning like a torch fell from the sky; 415  it landed 416  on a third of the rivers and on the springs of water. 8:11 (Now 417  the name of the star is 418  Wormwood.) 419  So 420  a third of the waters became wormwood, 421  and many people died from these waters because they were poisoned. 422 

8:12 Then 423  the fourth angel blew his trumpet, and a third of the sun was struck, and a third of the moon, and a third of the stars, so that a third of them were darkened. And there was no light for a third of the day 424  and for a third of the night likewise. 8:13 Then 425  I looked, and I heard an 426  eagle 427  flying directly overhead, 428  proclaiming with a loud voice, “Woe! Woe! Woe to those who live on the earth because of the remaining sounds of the trumpets of the three angels who are about to blow them!” 429 

9:1 Then 430  the fifth angel blew his trumpet, and I saw a star that had fallen from the sky 431  to the earth, and he was given the key to the shaft of the abyss. 432  9:2 He 433  opened the shaft of the abyss and smoke rose out of it 434  like smoke from a giant furnace. The 435  sun and the air were darkened with smoke from the shaft. 9:3 Then 436  out of the smoke came locusts onto the earth, and they were given power 437  like that of the scorpions of the earth. 9:4 They 438  were told 439  not to damage the grass of the earth, or any green plant or tree, but only those people 440  who did not have the seal of God on their 441  forehead. 9:5 The locusts 442  were not given permission 443  to kill 444  them, but only to torture 445  them 446  for five months, and their torture was like that 447  of a scorpion when it stings a person. 448  9:6 In 449  those days people 450  will seek death, but 451  will not be able to 452  find it; they will long to die, but death will flee from them.

9:7 Now 453  the locusts looked like horses equipped for battle. On 454  their heads were something like crowns similar to gold, 455  and their faces looked like men’s 456  faces. 9:8 They 457  had hair like women’s hair, and their teeth were like lions’ teeth. 9:9 They had breastplates 458  like iron breastplates, and the sound of their wings was like the noise of many horse-drawn chariots charging into battle. 9:10 They have 459  tails and stingers like scorpions, and their ability 460  to injure people for five months is in their tails. 9:11 They have as king over them the angel of the abyss, whose name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek, Apollyon. 461 

9:12 The first woe has passed, but 462  two woes are still coming after these things!

9:13 Then 463  the sixth angel blew his trumpet, and I heard a single voice coming from the 464  horns on the golden altar that is before God, 9:14 saying to the sixth angel, the one holding 465  the trumpet, “Set free 466  the four angels who are bound at the great river Euphrates!” 9:15 Then 467  the four angels who had been prepared for this 468  hour, day, 469  month, and year were set free to kill 470  a third of humanity. 9:16 The 471  number of soldiers on horseback was two hundred million; 472  I heard their number. 9:17 Now 473  this is what the horses and their riders 474  looked like in my 475  vision: The riders had breastplates that were fiery red, 476  dark blue, 477  and sulfurous 478  yellow in color. 479  The 480  heads of the horses looked like lions’ heads, and fire, smoke, and sulfur 481  came out of their mouths. 9:18 A third of humanity was killed by these three plagues, that is, 482  by the fire, the smoke, and the sulfur that came out of their mouths. 9:19 For the power 483  of the horses resides 484  in their mouths and in their tails, because their tails are like snakes, having heads that inflict injuries. 9:20 The rest of humanity, who had not been killed by these plagues, did not repent of the works of their hands, so that they did not stop worshiping demons and idols made 485  of gold, silver, 486  bronze, stone, and wood – idols that cannot see or hear or walk about. 9:21 Furthermore, 487  they did not repent of their murders, of their magic spells, 488  of their sexual immorality, or of their stealing.

The Angel with the Little Scroll

10:1 Then 489  I saw another powerful angel descending from heaven, wrapped 490  in a cloud, with a rainbow above his head; his face was like the sun and his legs were like pillars of fire. 491  10:2 He held 492  in his hand a little scroll that was open, and he put his right foot on the sea and his left on the land. 10:3 Then 493  he shouted in a loud voice like a lion roaring, and when he shouted, the seven thunders sounded their voices. 10:4 When the seven thunders spoke, I was preparing to write, but 494  just then 495  I heard a voice from heaven say, “Seal up what the seven thunders spoke and do not write it down.” 10:5 Then 496  the angel I saw standing on the sea and on the land raised his right hand to heaven 10:6 and swore by the one who lives forever and ever, who created heaven and what is in it, and the earth and what is in it, and the sea and what is in it, “There will be no more delay! 497  10:7 But in the days 498  when the seventh angel is about to blow his trumpet, the mystery of God is completed, 499  just as he has 500  proclaimed to his servants 501  the prophets.” 10:8 Then 502  the voice I had heard from heaven began to speak 503  to me 504  again, 505  “Go and take the open 506  scroll in the hand of the angel who is standing on the sea and on the land.” 10:9 So 507  I went to the angel and asked him to give me the little scroll. He 508  said to me, “Take the scroll 509  and eat it. It 510  will make your stomach bitter, but it will be as sweet as honey in your mouth.” 10:10 So 511  I took the little scroll from the angel’s hand and ate it, and it did taste 512  as sweet as honey in my mouth, but 513  when I had eaten it, my stomach became bitter. 10:11 Then 514  they 515  told me: “You must prophesy again about many peoples, nations, 516  languages, and kings.”

The Fate of the Two Witnesses

11:1 Then 517  a measuring rod 518  like a staff was given to me, and I was told, 519  “Get up and measure the temple of God, and the altar, and the ones who worship there. 11:2 But 520  do not measure the outer courtyard 521  of the temple; leave it out, 522  because it has been given to the Gentiles, 523  and they will trample on the holy city 524  for forty-two months. 11:3 And I will grant my two witnesses authority 525  to prophesy for 1,260 days, dressed in sackcloth. 11:4 (These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands that stand before the Lord of the earth.) 526  11:5 If 527  anyone wants to harm them, fire comes out of their mouths 528  and completely consumes 529  their enemies. If 530  anyone wants to harm them, they must be killed this way. 11:6 These two have the power 531  to close up the sky so that it does not rain during the time 532  they are prophesying. They 533  have power 534  to turn the waters to blood and to strike the earth with every kind of plague whenever they want. 11:7 When 535  they have completed their testimony, the beast that comes up from the abyss will make war on them and conquer 536  them and kill them. 11:8 Their 537  corpses will lie in the street 538  of the great city that is symbolically 539  called Sodom and Egypt, where their Lord was also crucified. 11:9 For three and a half days those from every 540  people, tribe, 541  nation, and language will look at their corpses, because they will not permit them to be placed in a tomb. 542  11:10 And those who live on the earth will rejoice over them and celebrate, even sending gifts to each other, because these two prophets had tormented those who live on the earth. 11:11 But 543  after three and a half days a breath of life from God entered them, and they stood on their feet, and tremendous fear seized 544  those who were watching them. 11:12 Then 545  they 546  heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them: “Come up here!” So the two prophets 547  went up to heaven in a cloud while 548  their enemies stared at them. 11:13 Just then 549  a major earthquake took place and a tenth of the city collapsed; seven thousand people 550  were killed in the earthquake, and the rest were terrified and gave glory to the God of heaven.

11:14 The second woe has come and gone; 551  the third is coming quickly.

The Seventh Trumpet

11:15 Then 552  the seventh angel blew his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven saying:

“The kingdom of the world

has become the kingdom of our Lord

and of his Christ, 553 

and he will reign for ever and ever.”

11:16 Then 554  the twenty-four elders who are seated on their thrones before God threw themselves down with their faces to the ground 555  and worshiped God 11:17 with these words: 556 

“We give you thanks, Lord God, the All-Powerful, 557 

the one who is and who was,

because you have taken your great power

and begun to reign. 558 

11:18 The 559  nations 560  were enraged,

but 561  your wrath has come,

and the time has come for the dead to be judged,

and the time has come to give to your servants, 562 

the prophets, their reward,

as well as to the saints

and to those who revere 563  your name, both small and great,

and the time has come 564  to destroy those who destroy 565  the earth.”

11:19 Then 566  the temple of God in heaven was opened and the ark of his covenant was visible within his temple. And there were flashes of lightning, roaring, 567  crashes of thunder, an earthquake, and a great hailstorm. 568 

The Woman, the Child, and the Dragon

12:1 Then 569  a great sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, and with the moon under her feet, and on her head was a crown of twelve stars. 570  12:2 She 571  was pregnant and was screaming in labor pains, struggling 572  to give birth. 12:3 Then 573  another sign appeared in heaven: a huge red dragon that had seven heads and ten horns, and on its heads were seven diadem crowns. 574  12:4 Now 575  the dragon’s 576  tail swept away a third of the stars in heaven and hurled them to the earth. Then 577  the dragon stood before the woman who was about to give birth, so that he might devour her child as soon as it was born. 12:5 So 578  the woman gave birth to a son, a male child, 579  who is going to rule 580  over all the nations 581  with an iron rod. 582  Her 583  child was suddenly caught up to God and to his throne, 12:6 and she 584  fled into the wilderness 585  where a place had been prepared for her 586  by God, so she could be taken care of 587  for 1,260 days.

War in Heaven

12:7 Then 588  war broke out in heaven: Michael 589  and his angels fought against the dragon, and the dragon and his angels fought back. 12:8 But 590  the dragon was not strong enough to prevail, 591  so there was no longer any place left 592  in heaven for him and his angels. 593  12:9 So 594  that huge dragon – the ancient serpent, the one called the devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world – was thrown down to the earth, and his angels along with him. 12:10 Then 595  I heard a loud voice in heaven saying,

“The salvation and the power

and the kingdom of our God,

and the ruling authority 596  of his Christ, 597  have now come,

because the accuser of our brothers and sisters, 598 

the one who accuses them day and night 599  before our God,

has been thrown down.

12:11 But 600  they overcame him

by the blood of the Lamb

and by the word of their testimony,

and they did not love their lives 601  so much that they were afraid to die.

12:12 Therefore you heavens rejoice, and all who reside in them!

But 602  woe to the earth and the sea

because the devil has come down to you!

He 603  is filled with terrible anger,

for he knows that he only has a little time!”

12:13 Now 604  when the dragon realized 605  that he had been thrown down to the earth, he pursued the woman who had given birth to the male child. 12:14 But 606  the woman was given the two wings of a giant eagle so that she could fly out into the wilderness, 607  to the place God 608  prepared for her, where she is taken care of – away from the presence of the serpent – for a time, times, and half a time. 609  12:15 Then 610  the serpent spouted water like a river out of his mouth after the woman in an attempt to 611  sweep her away by a flood, 12:16 but 612  the earth came to her rescue; 613  the ground opened up 614  and swallowed the river that the dragon had spewed from his mouth. 12:17 So 615  the dragon became enraged at the woman and went away to make war on the rest of her children, 616  those who keep 617  God’s commandments and hold to 618  the testimony about Jesus. 619  (12:18) And the dragon 620  stood 621  on the sand 622  of the seashore. 623 

The Two Beasts

13:1 Then 624  I saw a beast coming up out of the sea. It 625  had ten horns and seven heads, and on its horns were ten diadem crowns, 626  and on its heads a blasphemous name. 627  13:2 Now 628  the beast that I saw was like a leopard, but its feet were like a bear’s, and its mouth was like a lion’s mouth. The 629  dragon gave the beast 630  his power, his throne, and great authority to rule. 631  13:3 One of the beast’s 632  heads appeared to have been killed, 633  but the lethal wound had been healed. 634  And the whole world followed 635  the beast in amazement; 13:4 they worshiped the dragon because he had given ruling authority 636  to the beast, and they worshiped the beast too, saying: “Who is like the beast?” and “Who is able to make war against him?” 637  13:5 The beast 638  was given a mouth speaking proud words 639  and blasphemies, and he was permitted 640  to exercise ruling authority 641  for forty-two months. 13:6 So 642  the beast 643  opened his mouth to blaspheme against God – to blaspheme both his name and his dwelling place, 644  that is, those who dwell in heaven. 13:7 The beast 645  was permitted to go to war against the saints and conquer them. 646  He was given ruling authority 647  over every tribe, people, 648  language, and nation, 13:8 and all those who live on the earth will worship the beast, 649  everyone whose name has not been written since the foundation of the world 650  in the book of life belonging to the Lamb who was killed. 651  13:9 If anyone has an ear, he had better listen!

13:10 If anyone is meant for captivity,

into captivity he will go.

If anyone is to be killed by the sword, 652 

then by the sword he must be killed.

This 653  requires steadfast endurance 654  and faith from the saints.

13:11 Then 655  I saw another beast 656  coming up from the earth. He 657  had two horns like a lamb, 658  but 659  was speaking like a dragon. 13:12 He 660  exercised all the ruling authority 661  of the first beast on his behalf, 662  and made the earth and those who inhabit it worship the first beast, the one whose lethal wound had been healed. 13:13 He 663  performed momentous signs, even making fire come down from heaven in front of people 664  13:14 and, by the signs he was permitted to perform on behalf of the beast, he deceived those who live on the earth. He told 665  those who live on the earth to make an image to the beast who had been wounded by the sword, but still lived. 13:15 The second beast 666  was empowered 667  to give life 668  to the image of the first beast 669  so that it could speak, and could cause all those who did not worship the image of the beast to be killed. 13:16 He also caused 670  everyone (small and great, rich and poor, free and slave 671 ) to obtain a mark on their right hand or on their forehead. 13:17 Thus no one was allowed to buy 672  or sell things 673  unless he bore 674  the mark of the beast – that is, his name or his number. 675  13:18 This calls for wisdom: 676  Let the one who has insight calculate the beast’s number, for it is man’s number, 677  and his number is 666. 678 

An Interlude: The Song of the 144,000

14:1 Then 679  I looked, and here was 680  the Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with him were one hundred and forty-four thousand, who had his name and his Father’s name written on their foreheads. 14:2 I also heard a sound 681  coming out of heaven like the sound of many waters and like the sound of loud thunder. Now 682  the sound I heard was like that made by harpists playing their harps, 14:3 and they were singing a new song before the throne and before the four living creatures and the elders. No 683  one was able to learn the song except the one hundred and forty-four thousand who had been redeemed from the earth.

14:4 These are the ones who have not defiled themselves 684  with women, for they are virgins. These are the ones who follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These were redeemed from humanity as firstfruits to God and to the Lamb, 14:5 and no lie was found on their lips; 685  they 686  are blameless.

Three Angels and Three Messages

14:6 Then 687  I saw another 688  angel flying directly overhead, 689  and he had 690  an eternal gospel to proclaim 691  to those who live 692  on the earth – to every nation, tribe, 693  language, and people. 14:7 He declared 694  in a loud voice: “Fear God and give him glory, because the hour of his judgment has arrived, and worship the one who made heaven and earth, the sea and the springs of water!”

14:8 A 695  second 696  angel 697  followed the first, 698  declaring: 699  “Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great city! 700  She made all the nations 701  drink of the wine of her immoral passion.” 702 

14:9 A 703  third angel 704  followed the first two, 705  declaring 706  in a loud voice: “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and takes the mark on his forehead or his hand, 14:10 that person 707  will also drink of the wine of God’s anger 708  that has been mixed undiluted in the cup of his wrath, and he will be tortured with fire and sulfur 709  in front of the holy angels and in front of the Lamb. 14:11 And the smoke from their 710  torture will go up 711  forever and ever, and those who worship the beast and his image will have 712  no rest day or night, along with 713  anyone who receives the mark of his name.” 14:12 This requires 714  the steadfast endurance 715  of the saints – those who obey 716  God’s commandments and hold to 717  their faith in Jesus. 718 

14:13 Then 719  I heard a voice from heaven say, “Write this:

‘Blessed are the dead,

those who die in the Lord from this moment on!’”

“Yes,” says the Spirit, “so they can rest from their hard work, 720  because their deeds will follow them.” 721 

14:14 Then 722  I looked, and a white cloud appeared, 723  and seated on the cloud was one like a son of man! 724  He had 725  a golden crown on his head and a sharp sickle in his hand. 14:15 Then 726  another angel came out of the temple, shouting in a loud voice to the one seated on the cloud, “Use 727  your sickle and start to reap, 728  because the time to reap has come, since the earth’s harvest is ripe!” 14:16 So 729  the one seated on the cloud swung his sickle over the earth, and the earth was reaped.

14:17 Then 730  another angel came out of the temple in heaven, and he too had a sharp sickle. 14:18 Another 731  angel, who was in charge of 732  the fire, came from the altar and called in a loud voice to the angel 733  who had the sharp sickle, “Use 734  your sharp sickle and gather 735  the clusters of grapes 736  off the vine of the earth, 737  because its grapes 738  are now ripe.” 739  14:19 So 740  the angel swung his sickle over the earth and gathered the grapes from the vineyard 741  of the earth and tossed them into the great 742  winepress of the wrath of God. 14:20 Then 743  the winepress was stomped 744  outside the city, and blood poured out of the winepress up to the height of horses’ bridles 745  for a distance of almost two hundred miles. 746 

The Final Plagues

15:1 Then 747  I saw another great and astounding sign in heaven: seven angels who have seven final plagues 748  (they are final because in them God’s anger is completed).

15:2 Then 749  I saw something like a sea of glass 750  mixed with fire, and those who had conquered 751  the beast and his image and the number of his name. They were standing 752  by 753  the sea of glass, holding harps given to them by God. 754  15:3 They 755  sang the song of Moses the servant 756  of God and the song of the Lamb: 757 

“Great and astounding are your deeds,

Lord God, the All-Powerful! 758 

Just 759  and true are your ways,

King over the nations! 760 

15:4 Who will not fear you, O Lord,

and glorify 761  your name, because you alone are holy? 762 

All nations 763  will come and worship before you

for your righteous acts 764  have been revealed.”

15:5 After 765  these things I looked, and the temple (the tent 766  of the testimony) 767  was opened in heaven, 15:6 and the seven angels who had the seven plagues came out of the temple, dressed in clean bright linen, wearing wide golden belts 768  around their chests. 15:7 Then 769  one of the four living creatures gave the seven angels seven golden bowls filled with the wrath 770  of God who lives forever and ever, 15:8 and the temple was filled with smoke from God’s glory and from his power. Thus 771  no one could enter the temple until the seven plagues from the seven angels were completed.

The Bowls of God’s Wrath

16:1 Then 772  I heard a loud voice from the temple declaring to the seven angels: “Go and pour out on the earth the seven bowls containing God’s wrath.” 773  16:2 So 774  the first angel 775  went and poured out his bowl on the earth. Then 776  ugly and painful sores 777  appeared on the people 778  who had the mark of the beast and who worshiped his image.

16:3 Next, 779  the second angel 780  poured out his bowl on the sea and it turned into blood, like that of a corpse, and every living creature that was in the sea died.

16:4 Then 781  the third angel 782  poured out his bowl on the rivers and the springs of water, and they turned into blood. 16:5 Now 783  I heard the angel of the waters saying:

“You are just 784  – the one who is and who was,

the Holy One – because you have passed these judgments, 785 

16:6 because they poured out the blood of your saints and prophets,

so 786  you have given them blood to drink. They got what they deserved!” 787 

16:7 Then 788  I heard the altar reply, 789  “Yes, Lord God, the All-Powerful, 790  your judgments are true and just!”

16:8 Then 791  the fourth angel 792  poured out his bowl on the sun, and it was permitted to scorch people 793  with fire. 16:9 Thus 794  people 795  were scorched by the terrible heat, 796  yet 797  they blasphemed the name of God, who has ruling authority 798  over these plagues, and they would not repent and give him glory.

16:10 Then 799  the fifth angel 800  poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast so that 801  darkness covered his kingdom, 802  and people 803  began to bite 804  their tongues because 805  of their pain. 16:11 They blasphemed the God of heaven because of their sufferings 806  and because of their sores, 807  but nevertheless 808  they still refused to repent 809  of their deeds.

16:12 Then 810  the sixth angel 811  poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates and dried up its water 812  to prepare the way 813  for the kings from the east. 814  16:13 Then 815  I saw three unclean spirits 816  that looked like frogs coming out of the mouth of the dragon, out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet. 16:14 For they are the spirits of the demons performing signs who go out to the kings of the earth 817  to bring them together for the battle that will take place on the great day of God, the All-Powerful. 818 

16:15 (Look! I will come like a thief!

Blessed is the one who stays alert and does not lose 819  his clothes so that he will not have to walk around naked and his shameful condition 820  be seen.) 821 

16:16 Now 822  the spirits 823  gathered the kings and their armies 824  to the place that is called Armageddon 825  in Hebrew.

16:17 Finally 826  the seventh angel 827  poured out his bowl into the air and a loud voice came out of the temple from the throne, saying: “It is done!” 16:18 Then 828  there were flashes of lightning, roaring, 829  and crashes of thunder, and there was a tremendous earthquake – an earthquake unequaled since humanity 830  has been on the earth, so tremendous was that earthquake. 16:19 The 831  great city was split into three parts and the cities of the nations 832  collapsed. 833  So 834  Babylon the great was remembered before God, and was given the cup 835  filled with the wine made of God’s furious wrath. 836  16:20 Every 837  island fled away 838  and no mountains could be found. 839  16:21 And gigantic hailstones, weighing about a hundred pounds 840  each, fell from heaven 841  on people, 842  but they 843  blasphemed God because of the plague of hail, since it 844  was so horrendous. 845 

The Great Prostitute and the Beast

17:1 Then 846  one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and spoke to me. 847  “Come,” he said, “I will show you the condemnation and punishment 848  of the great prostitute who sits on many waters, 17:2 with whom the kings of the earth committed sexual immorality and the earth’s inhabitants got drunk with the wine of her immorality.” 849  17:3 So 850  he carried me away in the Spirit 851  to a wilderness, 852  and there 853  I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast that was full of blasphemous names and had seven heads and ten horns. 17:4 Now 854  the woman was dressed in purple and scarlet clothing, 855  and adorned with gold, 856  precious stones, and pearls. She held 857  in her hand a golden cup filled with detestable things and unclean things from her sexual immorality. 858  17:5 On 859  her forehead was written a name, a mystery: 860  “Babylon the Great, the Mother of prostitutes and of the detestable things of the earth.” 17:6 I saw that the woman was drunk with the blood of the saints and the blood of those who testified to Jesus. 861  I 862  was greatly astounded 863  when I saw her. 17:7 But 864  the angel said to me, “Why are you astounded? I will interpret 865  for you the mystery of the woman and of the beast with the seven heads and ten horns that carries her. 17:8 The beast you saw was, and is not, but is about to come up from the abyss 866  and then go to destruction. The 867  inhabitants of the earth – all those whose names have not been written in the book of life since the foundation of the world – will be astounded when they see that 868  the beast was, and is not, but is to come. 17:9 (This requires 869  a mind that has wisdom.) The seven heads are seven mountains 870  the woman sits on. They are also seven kings: 17:10 five have fallen; one is, 871  and the other has not yet come, but whenever he does come, he must remain for only a brief time. 17:11 The 872  beast that was, and is not, is himself an eighth king and yet is one of the seven, and is going to destruction. 17:12 The 873  ten horns that you saw are ten kings who have not yet received a kingdom, but will receive ruling authority 874  as kings with the beast for one hour. 17:13 These kings 875  have a single intent, and they will give their power and authority to the beast. 17:14 They will make war with the Lamb, but the Lamb will conquer them, because he is Lord of lords and King of kings, and those accompanying 876  the Lamb are the called, chosen, and faithful.”

17:15 Then 877  the angel 878  said to me, “The waters you saw (where the prostitute is seated) are peoples, multitudes, 879  nations, and languages. 17:16 The 880  ten horns that you saw, and the beast – these will hate the prostitute and make her desolate and naked. They 881  will consume her flesh and burn her up with fire. 882  17:17 For God has put into their minds 883  to carry out his purpose 884  by making 885  a decision 886  to give their royal power 887  to the beast until the words of God are fulfilled. 888  17:18 As for 889  the woman you saw, she is the great city that has sovereignty over the kings of the earth.”

1 tn The phrase ἀποκάλυψις ᾿Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ (ajpokaluyi" Ihsou Cristou, “the revelation of Jesus Christ”) could be interpreted as either an objective genitive (“the revelation about Jesus Christ”), subjective genitive (“the revelation from Jesus Christ”), or both (M. Zerwick’s “general” genitive [Biblical Greek, §§36-39]; D. B. Wallace’s “plenary” genitive [ExSyn 119-21]). In 1:1 and 22:16 it is clear that Jesus has sent his angel to proclaim the message to John; thus the message is from Christ, and this would be a subjective genitive. On a broader scale, though, the revelation is about Christ, so this would be an objective genitive. One important point to note is that the phrase under consideration is best regarded as the title of the book and therefore refers to the whole of the work in all its aspects. This fact favors considering this as a plenary genitive.

2 tn Grk “slaves.” Although this translation frequently renders δοῦλος (doulos) as “slave,” the connotation is often of one who has sold himself into slavery; in a spiritual sense, the idea is that of becoming a slave of God or of Jesus Christ voluntarily. The voluntary notion is not conspicuous here; hence, the translation “servants.” In any case, the word does not bear the connotation of a free individual serving another. BDAG notes that “‘servant’ for ‘slave’ is largely confined to Biblical transl. and early American times…in normal usage at the present time the two words are carefully distinguished” (BDAG 260 s.v.). The most accurate translation is “bondservant” (sometimes found in the ASV for δοῦλος), in that it often indicates one who sells himself into slavery to another. But as this is archaic, few today understand its force.

3 tn BDAG 992-93 s.v. τάχος has “quickly, at once, without delay Ac 10:33 D; 12:7; 17:15 D; 22:18; 1 Cl 48:1; 63:4…soon, in a short timeRv 1:1; 22:6shortly Ac 25:4.”

4 tn Or “He indicated it clearly” (L&N 33.153).

5 tn See the note on the word “servants” earlier in this verse.

6 tn “Then” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied to make the chronological succession clear in the translation.

7 tn The genitive phrase “about Jesus Christ” is taken as an objective genitive.

8 tn The word “this” is used to translate the Greek article τῆς (ths), bringing out its demonstrative force.

9 tn The word “aloud” has been supplied to indicate that in the original historical setting reading would usually refer to reading out loud in public rather than silently to oneself.

10 tn The words “blessed are” are repeated from the beginning of this verse for stylistic reasons and for clarity.

11 tn Grk “keep.” L&N 36.19 has “to continue to obey orders or commandments – ‘to obey, to keep commandments, obedience.’”

12 sn The time refers to the time when the things prophesied would happen.

13 tn Grk “John.” The word “From” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to indicate the sender of the letter.

14 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.

15 tn It is probable that the ὑμῖν (Jumin) applies to both elements of the greeting, i.e., to both grace and peace.

16 tc The earliest and best mss (Ì18vid א A C P 2050 al lat sy co) lack the term “God” (θεοῦ, qeou) between “from” (ἀπό, apo) and “he who is” (ὁ ὤν, Jo wn). Its inclusion, as supported by the bulk of the Byzantine witnesses, is clearly secondary and a scribal attempt to achieve two things: (1) to make explicit the referent in the passage, namely, God, and (2) to smooth out the grammar. The preposition “from” in Greek required a noun in the genitive case. But here in Rev 1:4 the words following the preposition “from” (ἀπό) are in another case, i.e., the nominative. There are two principal ways in which to deal with this grammatical anomaly. First, it could be a mistake arising from someone who just did not know Greek very well, or as a Jew, was heavily influenced by a Semitic form of Greek. Both of these unintentional errors are unlikely here. Commenting on this ExSyn 63 argues: “Either of these is doubtful here because (1) such a flagrant misunderstanding of the rudiments of Greek would almost surely mean that the author could not compose in Greek, yet the Apocalypse itself argues against this; (2) nowhere else does the Seer [i.e., John] use a nom. immediately after a preposition (in fact, he uses ἀπό 32 times with the gen. immediately following).” The passage appears to be an allusion to Exod 3:14 (in the LXX) where God refers to himself as “he who is” (ὁ ὤν), the same wording in Greek as here in Rev 1:4. Thus, it appears that John is wanting to leave the divine name untouched (perhaps to allude to God’s immutability, or as a pointer to the Old Testament as the key to unlocking the meaning of this book), irrespective of what it “looks” like grammatically. The translation has placed the “he who is” in quotation marks to indicate to the reader that the syntactical awkwardness is intentional. (For further comments, see ExSyn 63).

17 tn BDAG 106 s.v. ἀπό 5.d states: “The expr. εἰρήνη ἀπὸὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενοςRv 1:4 is quite extraordinary. It may be an interpretation of the name Yahweh already current, or an attempt to show reverence for the divine name by preserving it unchanged, or simply one more of the grammatical peculiarities so frequent in Rv.”

18 tn Or “Jesus Christ – the faithful one, the witness…” Some take ὁ πιστός (Jo pistos) as a second substantive in relation to ὁ μάρτυς (Jo martus). In the present translation, however, ὁ πιστός was taken as an adjective in attributive position to ὁ μάρτυς. The idea of martyrdom and faithfulness are intimately connected. See BDAG 820 s.v. πιστός 1.a.α: “ὁ μάρτυς μου ὁ πιστός μου Rv 2:13 (μάρτυς 3); in this ‘book of martyrs’ Christ is ὁ μάρτυς ὁ πιστὸς (καὶ ὁ ἀληθινός) 1:5; 3:14; cp. 19:11 (the combination of ἀληθινός and πιστός in the last two passages is like 3 Macc 2:11). Cp. Rv 17:14.”

19 sn The Greek term translated witness can mean both “witness” and “martyr.”

20 tc The reading “set free” (λύσαντι, lusanti) has better ms support (Ì18 א A C 1611 2050 2329 2351 ÏA sy) than its rival, λούσαντι (lousanti, “washed”; found in P 1006 1841 1854 2053 2062 ÏK lat bo). Internally, it seems that the reading “washed” could have arisen in at least one of three ways: (1) as an error of hearing (both “released” and “washed” are pronounced similarly in Greek); (2) an error of sight (both “released” and “washed” look very similar – a difference of only one letter – which could have resulted in a simple error during the copying of a ms); (3) through scribal inability to appreciate that the Hebrew preposition ב can be used with a noun to indicate the price paid for something. Since the author of Revelation is influenced significantly by a Semitic form of Greek (e.g., 13:10), and since the Hebrew preposition “in” (ב) can indicate the price paid for something, and is often translated with the preposition “in” (ἐν, en) in the LXX, the author may have tried to communicate by the use of ἐν the idea of a price paid for something. That is, John was trying to say that Christ delivered us at the price of his own blood. This whole process, however, may have been lost on a later scribe, who being unfamiliar with Hebrew, found the expression “delivered in his blood” too difficult, and noticing the obvious similarities between λύσαντι and λούσαντι, assumed an error and then proceeded to change the text to “washed in his blood” – a thought more tolerable in his mind. Both readings, of course, are true to scripture; the current question is what the author wrote in this verse.

tn Or “and released us” (L&N 37.127).

21 tn The style here is somewhat Semitic, with the use of the ἐν (en) + the dative to mean “at the price of.” The addition of “own” in the English is stylistic and is an attempt to bring out the personal nature of the statement and the sacrificial aspect of Jesus’ death – a frequent refrain in the Apocalypse.

22 tn The verb ποιέω (poiew) can indicate appointment or assignment rather than simply “make” or “do.” See Mark 3:14 (L&N 37.106).

23 tn See BDAG 168 s.v. βασιλεία 1.a for the idea of “he made us a kingdom,” which was translated as “he appointed us (to be or function) as a kingdom” (see the note on the word “appointed” earlier in the verse).

24 tn Grk “a kingdom, priests.” The term ἱερεῖς (Jiereis) is either in apposition to βασιλείαν (basileian) or as a second complement to the object “us” (ἡμᾶς, Jhmas). The translation retains this ambiguity.

25 tc Both the longer reading τῶν αἰώνων (twn aiwnwn, “to the ages of the ages” or, more idiomatically, “for ever and ever”; found in א C Ï) and the shorter (“for ever”; found in Ì18 A P 2050 pc bo) have good ms support. The author uses the longer expression (εἰς [τοὺς] αἰῶνας [τῶν] αἰώνων, ei" [tou"] aiwna" [twn] aiwnwn) in every other instance of αἰών in Revelation, twelve passages in all (1:18; 4:9, 10; 5:13; 7:12; 10:6; 11:15; 14:11; 15:7; 19:3; 20:10; 22:5). Thus, on the one hand, the style of the author is consistent, while on the other hand, the scribes may have been familiar with such a stylistic feature, causing them to add the words here. The issues are more complex than can be presented here; the longer reading, however, is probably original (the shorter reading arising from accidental omission of the genitive phrase due to similarity with the preceding words).

26 sn An allusion to Dan 7:13.

27 tn Here καί (kai) was translated as ascensive.

28 sn An allusion to Zech 12:10.

29 tn In this context, tribes (φυλαί, fulai) could also be translated as “nations” or “peoples” (L&N 11.56).

30 tn The conjunction ἐπί (epi) is most likely causal here. The people who crucified him are those of every tribe on the earth and they will mourn because he comes as judge.

31 tn Grk “Yes, Amen.” The expression “This will certainly come to pass” is an attempt to capture the force of the juxtaposition of the Greek ναί (nai) and the Hebrew ἀμήν (amhn). See L&N 69.1.

32 sn These lines are placed in parentheses because they form an aside to the main argument.

33 tc The shorter reading “Omega” (, w) has superior ms evidence ({א1 A C 1611}) to the longer reading which includes “the beginning and the end” (ἀρχὴ καὶ τέλος or ἡ ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ τέλος, arch kai telo" or Jh arch kai to telo"), found in א*,2 1854 2050 2329 2351 ÏA lat bo. There is little reason why a scribe would have deleted the words, but their clarifying value and the fact that they harmonize with 21:6 indicate that they are a secondary addition to the text.

34 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

35 tn The translation attempts to bring out the verbal idea in συγκοινωνός (sunkoinwno", “co-sharer”); John was suffering for his faith at the time he wrote this.

36 tn The prepositional phrase ἐν ᾿Ιησοῦ (en Ihsou) could be taken with ὑπομονῇ (Jupomonh) as the translation does or with the more distant συγκοινωνός (sunkoinwno"), in which case the translation would read “your brother and the one who shares with you in Jesus in the persecution, kingdom, and endurance.”

37 tn The phrase “about Jesus” has been translated as an objective genitive.

38 tn Or “in the spirit.” “Spirit” could refer either to the Holy Spirit or the human spirit, but in either case John was in “a state of spiritual exaltation best described as a trance” (R. H. Mounce, Revelation [NICNT], 75).

39 tn Concerning the phrase κυριακῇ ἡμέρᾳ (kuriakh Jhmera) BDAG 576 s.v. κυριακός states: “pert. to belonging to the Lord, the Lord’sκ. ἡμέρᾳ the Lord’s day (Kephal. I 192, 1; 193, 31…) i.e. certainly Sunday (so in Mod. Gk….) Rv 1:10 (WStott, NTS 12, ’65, 70-75).”

40 tn The conjunction καί (kai) is not introducing a coordinate thought, but one that is logically subordinate to the main verb ἐγενόμην (egenomhn).

41 map For location see JP1 D2; JP2 D2; JP3 D2; JP4 D2.

42 tn Grk “and to Smyrna.” For stylistic reasons the conjunction καί (kai) and the preposition εἰς (eis) have not been translated before the remaining elements of the list. In lists with more than two elements contemporary English generally does not repeat the conjunction except between the next to last and last elements.

43 tn Throughout the translation John’s use of καί (kai) often reflects the varied usage of the Hebrew conjunction ו (vav). A clause which καί introduces has been translated in terms of its semantic relationship to the clause that preceded it. If the καί seemed redundant, however, it was left untranslated; that is the case in this verse.

44 tn Grk “with me.” The translation “with me” implies that John was engaged in a dialogue with the one speaking to him (e.g., Jesus or an angel) when in reality it was a one-sided conversation, with John doing all the listening. For this reason, μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ (met emou, “with me”) was translated as “to me.”

45 tn Grk “and turning I saw.” The repetition of ἐπιστρέφω (epistrefw) is somewhat redundant in contemporary English and has been translated generally.

46 tn This phrase constitutes an allusion to Dan 7:13. Concerning υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου (Juio" tou anqrwpou), BDAG 1026 s.v. υἱός 2.d.γ says: “ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου lit. ‘the son of the man’…‘the human being, the human one, the man’…On Israelite thought contemporary w. Jesus and alleged knowledge of a heavenly being looked upon as a ‘Son of Man’ or ‘Man’, who exercises Messianic functions such as judging the world (metaph., pictorial passages in En 46-48; 4 Esdr 13:3, 51f)…Outside the gospels: Ac 7:56Rv 1:13; 14:14 (both after Da 7:13…).” The term “son” here in this expression is anarthrous and as such lacks specificity. Some commentators and translations take the expression as an allusion to Daniel 7:13 and not to “the son of man” found in gospel traditions (e.g., Mark 8:31; 9:12; cf. D. E. Aune, Revelation [WBC], 2:800-801; cf. also NIV). Other commentators and versions, however, take the phrase “son of man” as definite, involving allusions to Dan 7:13 and “the son of man” gospel traditions (see G. K. Beale, Revelation [NIGTC], 771-72; NRSV).

47 tn Or “a wide golden sash,” but this would not be diagonal, as some modern sashes are, but horizontal. The Greek term can refer to a wide band of cloth or leather worn on the outside of one’s clothing (L&N 6.178).

48 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

49 tn The clause, “even as white as snow” seems to heighten the preceding clause and is so understood in this ascensive sense (“even”) in the translation.

50 tn The genitive noun πυρός (puros) has been translated as an attributive genitive.

51 tn The precise meaning of the term translated “polished bronze” (χαλκολιβάνῳ, calkolibanw), which appears nowhere else in Greek literature outside of the book of Revelation (see 2:18), is uncertain. Without question it is some sort of metal. BDAG 1076 s.v. χαλκολίβανον suggests “fine brass/bronze.” L&N 2.57 takes the word to refer to particularly valuable or fine bronze, but notes that the emphasis here and in Rev 2:18 is more on the lustrous quality of the metal.

52 tn Or “that has been heated in a furnace until it glows.”

53 tn Grk “sound,” but the idea is closer to the roar of a waterfall or rapids.

54 tn Grk “and having.” In the Greek text this is a continuation of the previous sentence, but because contemporary English style employs much shorter sentences, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “he.”

55 tn This is a continuation of the previous sentence in the Greek text, but a new sentence was started here in the translation.

56 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

57 tn Here the Greek conjunction καί (kai) has been translated as a contrastive (“but”) due to the contrast between the two clauses.

58 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

59 tn Concerning “Hades” BDAG 19 s.v. ᾅδης 1 and 2 states: “Orig. proper noun, god of the nether world, ‘Hades’, then the nether world, Hades as place of the dead, Ac 2:27, 31 (Ps 15:10; Eccl 9:10; PGM 1, 179; 16, 8; Philo, Mos. 1, 195; Jos., Bell. 1, 596, Ant. 6, 332). Of Jonah’s fish ἐκ τοῦ κατωτάτου ᾅδου. In the depths, contrasted w. heaven ἕως (τοῦ) ᾅδου Mt 11:23; Lk 10:15 (PsSol 15:10; cp.; Is 14:11, 15); ἐν τῷ ᾅδῃ 16:23; ἐν ῝Αιδου ApcPt Rainer. Accessible by gates (but the pl. is also used [e.g. Hom., X., Ael. Aristid. 47, 20 K.=23 p. 450 D.] when only one gate is meant), hence πύλαι ᾅδου (Il. 5, 646; Is 38:10; Wsd 16:13; 3 Macc 5:51; Pss. Sol. 16:2. – Lucian, Menipp. 6 the magicians can open τοῦ ῝Αιδου τὰς πύλας and conduct people in and out safely) Mt 16:18…locked ἔχω τὰς κλεῖς τοῦ θανάτου καὶ τοῦ ᾅδου Rv 1:18 (the genitives are either obj. [Ps.-Apollod. 3, 12, 6, 10 Aeacus, the son of Zeus holds the κλεῖς τοῦ ῝Αιδου; SEG VIII, 574, 3 (III ad) τῷ τὰς κλεῖδας ἔχοντι τῶν καθ᾿ ῝Αιδου (restored)] or possess.; in the latter case death and Hades are personif.; s. 2)…Hades personif.…w. θάνατος (cp. Is 28:15; Job 38:17…) Rv 6:8; 20:13f.”

sn In the OT, Hades was known as Sheol. It is the place where the unrighteous will reside (Matt 11:23; Luke 16:23; Rev 20:13-14).

60 tn Grk “Therefore write the things that you saw, and the things that are, and the things that will take place after these things.” Verse 19 could also be translated (taking καίκαί [kaikai] as “both…and”): “Therefore write what you have seen, both what things currently are and what is going to happen after these things.” The structure of this verse is debated.

61 tn The words “is this” are supplied to make a complete sentence in English.

62 tn Or perhaps “the messengers.”

63 map For location see JP1 D2; JP2 D2; JP3 D2; JP4 D2.

64 tn The phrase “the following” after “write” is supplied to clarify that what follows is the content of what is to be written.

65 tn Grk “These things says [the One]…” The expression τάδε λέγει (tade legei) occurs eight times in the NT, seven of which are in Rev 2-3. “The pronoun is used to add solemnity to the prophetic utterance that follows. …In classical drama, it was used to introduce a new actor to the scene (Smyth, Greek Grammar, 307 [§1241]). But the τάδε λέγει formula in the NT derives from the OT, where it was used to introduce a prophetic utterance (BAGD, s.v. ὅδε, 1)” (ExSyn 328). Thus, the translation “this is the solemn pronouncement of” for τάδε λέγει is very much in keeping with the OT connotations of this expression.

sn The expression This is the solemn pronouncement of reflects an OT idiom. The LXX has the same Greek phrase (τάδε λέγει, tade legei) about 350 times, with nearly 320 of them having “the Lord” (Heb יהוה, Yahweh) as subject. That the author of Revelation would use such an expression seven times with the risen Christ as the speaker may well imply something of Christ’s sovereignty and deity. Cf. also Acts 21:11 in which the Holy Spirit is the speaker of this expression.

66 tn Grk “holds,” but the term (i.e., κρατῶν, kratwn) with an accusative object, along with the context, argues for a sense of firmness. (Cf. ExSyn 132.)

67 sn On seven stars in his right hand see 1:16.

68 tn Grk “lampstands of gold” with the genitive τῶν χρυσῶν (twn cruswn) translated as an attributive genitive.

69 tn Although the first possessive pronoun σου (sou) is connected to τὰ ἔργα (ta erga) and the second σου is connected to ὑπομονήν (Jupomonhn), semantically κόπον (kopon) is also to be understood as belonging to the Ephesian church. The translation reflects this.

70 tn The translation “tolerate” seems to capture the sense of βαστάσαι (bastasai) here. BDAG 171 s.v. βαστάζω 2.b.β says, “bear, endureκακούς Rv 2:2.…bear patiently, put up with: weaknesses of the weak Ro 15:1; cf. IPol 1:2; evil Rv 2:3.”

71 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the participle was broken off from the previous sentence and translated as an indicative verb beginning a new sentence here in the translation.

72 tn Because of the length and complexity of this Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the phrase “I am also aware” to link this English sentence back to “I know” at the beginning of v. 2.

73 tn The Greek word translated “persisted steadfastly” (ὑπομονή, Jupomonh) is the same one translated “steadfast endurance” in v. 2.

74 tn The Greek word translated “departed from” (ἀφίημι, afihmi; L&N 15.48) can actually be used of divorce (L&N 34.78), so the imagery here is very strong.

75 tn Grk “from where,” but status is in view rather than physical position. On this term BDAG 838 s.v. πόθεν 1 states, “from what place? from where?…In imagery μνημόνευε πόθεν πέπτωκες remember from what (state) you have fallen Rv 2:5.”

76 tn Grk “and do” (a continuation of the previous sentence in the Greek text). For stylistic reasons in English a new sentence was started here in the translation. The repeated mention of repenting at the end of the verse suggests that the intervening material (“do the deeds you did at first”) specifies how the repentance is to be demonstrated.

77 tn Or “you did formerly.”

78 tn Although the final clause is somewhat awkward, it is typical of the style of Revelation.

79 tn Grk “But you do have this.” The words “going for you” are supplied to complete the English idiom; other phrases like “in your favor” (NIV) or “to your credit” (NRSV) could also be supplied.

80 sn The Nicolaitans were a sect (sometimes associated with Nicolaus, one of the seven original deacons in the church in Jerusalem according to Acts 6:5) that apparently taught that Christians could engage in immoral behavior with impunity.

81 tn The expression τὰ ἔργα τῶν Νικολαϊτῶν (ta erga twn Nikolaitwn) has been translated as a subjective genitive.

82 tn Or “who is victorious”; traditionally, “who overcomes.” The pendent dative is allowed to stand in the English translation because it is characteristic of the author’s style in Revelation.

83 tn Or “grant.”

84 tn Or “stands.”

85 tc The omission of “my” (μου, mou) after “God” (θεοῦ, qeou) is well attested, supported by א A C and the Andreas of Caesarea group of Byzantine mss (ÏA). Its addition in 1611, the ÏK group, latt, and others, seems to be evidence of a purposeful conforming of the text to 3:2 and the four occurrences of “my God” (θεοῦ μου) in 3:12.

86 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated due to differences between Greek and English style.

87 tn The phrase “the following” after “write” is supplied to clarify that what follows is the content of what is to be written.

88 tn Grk “These things says [the One]…” See the note on the phrase “this is the solemn pronouncement of” in 2:1.

sn The expression This is the solemn pronouncement of reflects an OT idiom. See the note on this phrase in 2:1.

89 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present between these two phrases.

90 tn Or “know your suffering.” This could refer to suffering or distress caused by persecution (see L&N 22.2).

91 tn Because of the length and complexity of this Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the phrase “I also know” to link this English sentence back to “I know” at the beginning of the verse.

92 tn The words “against you” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

93 sn A synagogue was a place for Jewish prayer and worship, with recognized leadership (e.g., Mt 4:23, Mk 1:21, Lk 4:15, Jn 6:59).

94 tn Grk “is about to throw some of you,” but the force is causative in context.

95 tn Or “tempted.”

96 tn Or “experience persecution,” “will be in distress” (see L&N 22.2).

97 tn Grk “crown of life,” with the genitive “of life” (τῆς ζωῆς, th" zwh") functioning in apposition to “crown” (στέφανον, stefanon): “the crown that consists of life.”

98 tn Or “who is victorious”; traditionally, “who overcomes.”

99 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated due to differences between Greek and English style.

100 tn The phrase “the following” after “write” is supplied to clarify that what follows is the content of what is to be written.

101 tn Grk “These things says [the One]…” See the note on the phrase “this is the solemn pronouncement of” in 2:1.

sn The expression This is the solemn pronouncement of reflects an OT idiom. See the note on this phrase in 2:1.

102 sn On the sharp double-edged sword see 1:16.

103 tc The shorter reading adopted here has superior ms support (א A C P 2053 al latt co), while the inclusion of “your works and” (τὰ ἔργα σου καί, ta erga sou kai) before “where you reside” is supported by the Byzantine witnesses and is evidently a secondary attempt to harmonize the passage with 2:2, 19; 3:1, 8, 15.

104 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “Yet” to indicate the contrast between their location and their faithful behavior.

105 tn The present indicative verb κρατεῖς (kratei") has been translated as a progressive present.

106 tn Grk “the faith”; here the Greek article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

107 tn Grk “the faith of me” (τὴν πίστιν μου, thn pistin mou) with the genitive “of me” (μου) functioning objectively.

108 tn Or “martyr.” The Greek word μάρτυς can mean either “witness” or “martyr.”

109 tn Grk “killed among you.” The term “city” does not occur in the Greek text of course, but the expression παρ᾿ ὑμῖν, ὅπου ὁ σατανᾶς κατοικεῖ (parJumin, {opou Jo satana" katoikei) seems to indicate that this is what is meant. See G. B. Caird, Revelation (HNTC), 36-38.

110 sn See Num 22-24; 31:16.

111 tn That is, a cause for sinning. An alternate translation is “who instructed Balak to cause the people of Israel to sin by eating food sacrificed to idols…”

112 tn Grk “sons,” but the expression υἱοὶ ᾿Ισραήλ (Juioi Israhl) is an idiom for the people of Israel as an ethnic entity (see L&N 11.58).

113 tn Due to the actual events in the OT (Num 22-24; 31:16), πορνεῦσαι (porneusai) is taken to mean “sexual immorality.” BDAG 854 s.v. πορνεύω 1 states, “engage in illicit sex, to fornicate, to whore…W. φαγεῖν εἰδωλόθυτα ‘eat meat offered to idols’ Rv 2:14, 20.”

114 tn The term ὁμοίως (Jomoiws, “likewise”) is left untranslated because it is quite redundant.

sn See the note on the term Nicolaitans in 2:6.

115 tc The “therefore” (οὖν, oun) is not found in א 2053 2329 2351 ÏA or the Latin mss. It is, however, included in impressive witnesses such as {A C 046 1006 1611 syp,h co}. Though the conjunction looks at first glance like a scribal clarification, its omission may be explained on the basis of its similarity to the last three letters of the verb “repent” (μετανόησον, metanohson; since οὖν is a postpositive conjunction in Greek, the final three letters of the verb [-σον, -son] would have been immediately followed by ουν). A scribe could have simply passed over the conjunction in his copy when he saw the last three letters of the imperative verb. A decision is difficult, however, because of the motivation to add to the text and the quality of witnesses that lack the conjunction.

116 tn Grk “with them”; the referent (those people who follow the teaching of Balaam and the Nicolaitans) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

117 tn Or “who is victorious”; traditionally, “who overcomes.” The pendent dative is allowed to stand in the English translation because it is characteristic of the author’s style in Revelation.

118 tn Or “bright.” The Greek term λευκός (leukos) can refer either to the color white (traditional here) or to an object that is bright or shining, either from itself or from an outside source of illumination (L&N 14.50; 79.27).

119 tn On the interpretation of the stone, L&N 2.27 states, “A number of different suggestions have been made as to the reference of ψῆφος in this context. Some scholars believe that the white ψῆφος indicates a vote of acquittal in court. Others contend that it is simply a magical amulet; still others, a token of Roman hospitality; and finally, some have suggested that it may represent a ticket to the gladiatorial games, that is to say, to martyrdom. The context, however, suggests clearly that this is something to be prized and a type of reward for those who have ‘won the victory.’”

120 tn Or “know”; for the meaning “understand” see L&N 32.4.

121 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated due to differences between Greek and English style.

122 tn The phrase “the following” after “write” is supplied to clarify that what follows is the content of what is to be written.

123 tn Grk “These things says [the One]…” See the note on the phrase “this is the solemn pronouncement of” in 2:1.

sn The expression This is the solemn pronouncement of reflects an OT idiom. See the note on this phrase in 2:1.

124 tn Grk “a flame of fire.” The Greek term πυρός (puros) has been translated as an attributive genitive.

125 tn The precise meaning of the term translated “polished bronze” (χαλκολιβάνῳ, calkolibanw), which appears no where else in Greek literature outside of the book of Revelation (see 1:15), is uncertain. Without question it is some sort of metal. BDAG 1076 s.v. χαλκολίβανον suggests “fine brass/bronze.” L&N 2.57 takes the word to refer to particularly valuable or fine bronze, but notes that the emphasis here and in Rev 1:15 is more on the lustrous quality of the metal.

126 tn Grk “and faith.” Here and before the following term καί (kai) has not been translated because English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the next to last and last terms in a list.

127 tn Or “perseverance.”

128 tn The phrase “In fact” is supplied in the translation to bring out the ascensive quality of the clause. It would also be possible to supply here an understood repetition of the phrase “I know” from the beginning of the verse (so NRSV). Grk “and your last deeds [that are] greater than the first.”

129 tn The Greek article has been translated here with demonstrative force.

130 tc The ms evidence for γυναῖκα (gunaika, “woman”) alone includes {א C P 1611 2053 pc lat}. The ms evidence for the addition of “your” (σου, sou) includes A 1006 2351 ÏK pc sy. With the pronoun, the text reads “your wife, Jezebel” instead of “that woman, Jezebel.” In Revelation, A C are the most important mss, along with א Ì47 (which only reads in portions of chapters 9-17) 1006 1611 2053; in this instance, the external evidence slightly favors the shorter reading. But internally, it gains strength. The longer reading implies the idea that the angel in 2:18 is the bishop or leader of the church in Thyatira. The pronoun “your” (σου) is used four times in vv. 19-20 and may have been the cause for the scribe copying it again. Further, once the monarchical episcopate was in vogue (beginning in the 2nd century) scribes might have been prone to add “your” here.

131 sn Jezebel was the name of King Ahab’s idolatrous and wicked queen in 1 Kgs 16:31; 18:1-5; 19:1-3; 21:5-24. It is probable that the individual named here was analogous to her prototype in idolatry and immoral behavior, since those are the items singled out for mention.

132 tn Grk “teaches and deceives” (διδάσκει καὶ πλανᾷ, didaskei kai plana), a construction in which the first verb appears to specify the means by which the second is accomplished: “by her teaching, deceives…”

133 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

134 sn To commit sexual immorality and to eat food sacrificed to idols. Note the conclusions of the Jerusalem Council in Acts 15:29, which specifically prohibits Gentile Christians from engaging in these activities.

135 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and contemporary English style.

136 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to bring out the contrast present in this woman’s obstinate refusal to repent.

137 tn Grk “onto a bed,” in this context an idiom for severe illness (L&N 23.152).

138 tn Or “into great distress.” The suffering here is not specified as physical or emotional, and could involve persecution.

139 tn Grk “her children,” but in this context a reference to this woman’s followers or disciples is more likely meant.

140 tn Grk “I will kill with death.” θάνατος (qanatos) can in particular contexts refer to a manner of death, specifically a contagious disease (see BDAG 443 s.v. 3; L&N 23.158).

141 tn Grk “I will give.” The sense of δίδωμι (didwmi) in this context is more “repay” than “give.”

142 sn This pronoun and the following one are plural in the Greek text.

143 tn Grk “each one of you according to your works.”

144 sn That is, the teaching of Jezebel (v. 20).

145 tn Grk “deep things.” For the translation “deep secrets” see L&N 28.76; cf. NAB, NIV, CEV.

146 tn Or “who is victorious”; traditionally, “who overcomes.”

147 tn Grk “keeps.” In a context that speaks of “holding on to what you have,” the idea here is one of continued faithful behavior (BDAG 1002 s.v. τηρέω 3 has “ὁ τηρῶν τὰ ἔργα μου the one who takes my deeds to heart Rv 2:26”).

148 tn Or “over the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

149 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

150 tn Grk “will shepherd.”

151 tn Or “scepter.” The Greek term ῥάβδος (rJabdo") can mean either “rod” or “scepter.”

152 sn A quotation from Ps 2:9 (with the line introducing the quotation containing a partial allusion to Ps 2:8). See also Rev 12:5, 19:15.

153 tn What has been received is not specified in the Greek text, but must be supplied from the context. In the light of the two immediately preceding verses about rulership or dominion, it seems that the implied direct object of δώσω (dwsw) is “the right to rule” (i.e., ἔχειν ἐξουσίαν ποιμάνειν, ecein exousian poimanein), although many modern translations supply the word “authority” here (so NAB, NRSV, NLT).

154 tn On this expression BDAG 892 s.v. πρωϊνός states, “early, belonging to the morning ὁ ἀστὴρ ὁ πρ. the morning star, Venus Rv 2:28; 22:16.”

155 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated due to differences between Greek and English style.

156 tn The phrase “the following” after “write” is supplied to clarify that what follows is the content of what is to be written.

157 tn Grk “These things says [the One]…” See the note on the phrase “this is the solemn pronouncement of” in 2:1.

sn The expression This is the solemn pronouncement of reflects an OT idiom. See the note on this phrase in 2:1.

158 tn Grk “who has” (cf. 1:16).

159 tn Grk “a name.”

160 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

161 tn The prepositional phrase “in reality” is supplied in the translation to make explicit the idea that their being alive was only an illusion.

162 tn The verb ἔμελλον (emellon) is in the imperfect tense.

163 tn The perfect passive participle has been translated as an intensive (resultative) perfect here.

164 tn Or “in the judgment.” BDAG 342 s.v. ἐνώπιον 3 states, “in the opinion/judgment of…As a rule…of θεός or κύριος; so after…πεπληρωμένος Rv 3:2.”

165 tn The expression πῶς εἴληφας καὶ ἤκουσας (pw" eilhfa" kai hkousa") probably refers to the initial instruction in the Christian life they had received and been taught; this included doctrine and ethical teaching.

166 tn Grk “keep it,” in the sense of obeying what they had initially been taught.

167 tn The negation here is with οὐ μή (ou mh, the strongest possible form of negation in Koine Greek).

168 tn Or “come on.”

169 tn Grk “a few names”; here ὄνομα (onoma) is used by figurative extension to mean “person” or “people”; according to L&N 9.19 there is “the possible implication of existence or relevance as individuals.”

170 tn Or “soiled” (so NAB, NRSV, NIV); NCV “have kept their clothes unstained”; CEV “have not dirtied your clothes with sin.”

171 tn The word “dressed” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

172 tn Or “who overcomes.”

173 tn Grk “thus.”

174 tn Or “white robes.”

175 tn The negation here is with οὐ μή (ou mh), the strongest possible form of negation in Koine Greek.

176 tn Or “will never wipe out.”

177 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

178 tn Grk “will confess.”

179 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated due to differences between Greek and English style.

180 tn The phrase “the following” after “write” is supplied to clarify that what follows is the content of what is to be written.

181 tn Grk “These things says [the One]…” See the note on the phrase “this is the solemn pronouncement of” in 2:1.

sn The expression This is the solemn pronouncement of reflects an OT idiom. See the note on this phrase in 2:1.

182 tn The word “door” is not in the Greek text but has been supplied in the translation. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context. Since the following verse does contain the word “door” (θύραν, quran), that word has been supplied as the direct object here.

183 tn See the note on the word “door” earlier in this verse.

184 tn Grk “I have given.”

185 tn Grk “to shut it,” but English would leave the direct object understood in this case.

sn The entire statement is parenthetical, interrupting the construction found in other letters to the churches in 3:1 and 3:15, “I know your deeds, that…” where an enumeration of the deeds follows.

186 tn This translation is based on connecting the ὅτι (Joti) clause with the οἶδα (oida) at the beginning of the verse, giving the content of what is known (see also 3:1, 3:15 for parallels). Because of the intervening clause that is virtually parenthetical (see the note on the word “shut” earlier in this verse), the words “I know that” from the beginning of the verse had to be repeated to make this connection clear for the English reader. However, the ὅτι could be understood as introducing a causal subordinate clause instead and thus translated, “because you have.”

187 tn Or “little power.”

188 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

189 tn Grk “and having kept.” The participle ἐτήρησας (ethrhsas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. For the translation of τηρέω (threw) as “obey” see L&N 36.19. This is the same word that is used in 3:10 (there translated “kept”) where there is a play on words.

190 tn Grk “behold” (L&N 91.13).

191 sn See the note on synagogue in 2:9.

192 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast between what these people claimed and what they were.

193 tn The verb here is ποιέω (poiew), but in this context it has virtually the same meaning as δίδωμι (didwmi) used at the beginning of the verse. Stylistic variation like this is typical of Johannine literature.

194 tn The verb here is προσκυνήσουσιν (proskunhsousin), normally used to refer to worship.

195 tn Or “and know,” “and recognize.”

196 tn Or “obey.” For the translation of τηρέω (threw) as “obey” see L&N 36.19. In the Greek there is a wordplay: “because you have kept my word…I will keep you,” though the meaning of τηρέω is different each time.

197 tn The Greek term λόγον (logon) is understood here in the sense of admonition or encouragement.

198 tn Or “to persevere.” Here ὑπομονῆς (Jupomonhs) has been translated as a genitive of reference/respect related to τὸν λόγον (ton logon).

199 tn On the verb λάβῃ (labh) here BDAG 583 s.v. λαμβάνω 2 states, “to take away, remove…with or without the use of force τὰ ἀργύρια take away the silver coins (fr. the temple) Mt 27:6. τὰς ἀσθενείας diseases 8:17. τὸν στέφανον Rv 3:11.”

200 sn Your crown refers to a wreath consisting either of foliage or of precious metals formed to resemble foliage and worn as a symbol of honor, victory, or as a badge of high office – ‘wreath, crown’ (L&N 6.192).

201 tn Or “who is victorious”; traditionally, “who overcomes.”

202 tn Grk “I will make him,” but the pronoun (αὐτόν, auton, “him”) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated here.

203 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

204 sn This description of the city of my God is parenthetical, explaining further the previous phrase and interrupting the list of “new names” given here.

205 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated due to differences between Greek and English style.

206 tn The phrase “the following” after “write” is supplied to clarify that what follows is the content of what is to be written.

207 tn Grk “These things says [the One]…” See the note on the phrase “this is the solemn pronouncement of” in 2:1.

sn The expression This is the solemn pronouncement of reflects an OT idiom. See the note on this phrase in 2:1.

208 tn Or “the beginning of God’s creation”; or “the ruler of God’s creation.” From a linguistic standpoint all three meanings for ἀρχή (arch) are possible. The term is well attested in both LXX (Gen 40:13, 21; 41:13) and intertestamental Jewish literature (2 Macc 4:10, 50) as meaning “ruler, authority” (BDAG 138 s.v. 6). Some have connected this passage to Paul’s statements in Col 1:15, 18 which describe Christ as ἀρχή and πρωτότοκος (prwtotoko"; e.g., see R. H. Mounce, Revelation [NICNT], 124) but the term ἀρχή has been understood as either “beginning” or “ruler” in that passage as well. The most compelling connection is to be found in the prologue to John’s Gospel (1:2-4) where the λόγος (logos) is said to be “in the beginning (ἀρχή) with God,” a temporal reference connected with creation, and then v. 3 states that “all things were made through him.” The connection with the original creation suggests the meaning “originator” for ἀρχή here. BDAG 138 s.v. 3 gives the meaning “the first cause” for the word in Rev 3:14, a term that is too philosophical for the general reader, so the translation “originator” was used instead. BDAG also notes, “but the mng. beginning = ‘first created’ is linguistically probable (s. above 1b and Job 40:19; also CBurney, Christ as the ᾿Αρχή of Creation: JTS 27, 1926, 160-77).” Such a meaning is unlikely here, however, since the connections described above are much more probable.

209 sn Laodicea was near two other towns, each of which had a unique water source. To the north was Hierapolis which had a natural hot spring, often used for medicinal purposes. To the east was Colossae which had cold, pure waters. In contrast to these towns, Laodicea had no permanent supply of good water. Efforts to pipe water to the city from nearby springs were successful, but it would arrive lukewarm. The metaphor in the text is not meant to relate spiritual fervor to temperature. This would mean that Laodicea would be commended for being spiritually cold, but it is unlikely that Jesus would commend this. Instead, the metaphor condemns Laodicea for not providing spiritual healing (being hot) or spiritual refreshment (being cold) to those around them. It is a condemnation of their lack of works and lack of witness.

210 tn Or “I intend.”

211 tn This is the literal meaning of the Greek verb ἐμέω (emew). It is usually translated with a much weaker term like “spit out” due to the unpleasant connotations of the English verb “vomit,” as noted by L&N 23.44. The situation confronting the Laodicean church is a dire one, however, and such a term is necessary if the modern reader is to understand the gravity of the situation.

212 tn Grk “and have become rich.” The semantic domains of the two terms for wealth here, πλούσιος (plousios, adjective) and πλουτέω (ploutew, verb) overlap considerably, but are given slightly different English translations for stylistic reasons.

213 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

214 tn All the terms in this series are preceded by καί (kai) in the Greek text, but contemporary English generally uses connectives only between the last two items in such a series.

215 tn Grk “I counsel you to buy.”

216 tn Grk “rich, and.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation, repeating the words “Buy from me” to make the connection clear for the English reader.

217 tn Grk “the shame of the nakedness of you,” which has been translated as an attributed genitive like καινότητι ζωῆς (kainothti zwh") in Rom 6:4 (ExSyn 89-90).

218 sn The city of Laodicea had a famous medical school and exported a powder (called a “Phrygian powder”) that was widely used as an eye salve. It was applied to the eyes in the form of a paste the consistency of dough (the Greek term for the salve here, κολλούριον, kollourion [Latin collyrium], is a diminutive form of the word for a long roll of bread).

219 tn The Greek pronoun ὅσος (Josos) means “as many as” and can be translated “All those” or “Everyone.”

220 tn Grk “Behold.”

221 tn Grk “come in to him.”

sn The expression in Greek does not mean entrance into the person, as is popularly taken, but entrance into a room or building toward the person. See ExSyn 380-82. Some interpreters understand the door here to be the door to the Laodicean church, and thus a collective or corporate image rather than an individual one.

222 tn Grk “The one who conquers, to him I will grant.”

223 tn Or “who is victorious”; traditionally, “who overcomes.”

224 tn Grk “I will give [grant] to him.”

225 tn Or “have been victorious”; traditionally, “have overcome.”

226 tn Grk “and behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

227 tn Or “in the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

228 tn Grk “with me.” The translation “with me” implies that John was engaged in a dialogue with the one speaking to him (e.g., Jesus or an angel) when in reality it was a one-sided conversation, with John doing all the listening. For this reason, μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ (met emou, “with me”) was translated as “to me.”

229 sn The phrase speaking to me like a trumpet refers back to Rev 1:10.

230 tn The conjunction καί (kai), much like the vav-consecutive in Hebrew, appears to be introducing a final/purpose clause here rather than a coordinate clause.

231 tn Or “in the spirit.” “Spirit” could refer either to the Holy Spirit or the human spirit, but in either case John was in “a state of spiritual exaltation best described as a trance” (R. H. Mounce, Revelation [NICNT], 75).

232 tn Grk “and behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

233 tn BDAG 537 s.v. κεῖμαι 2 gives the translation “stand” for the term in this verse.

234 tn Grk “jasper stone.”

sn Jasper was a semiprecious gemstone, probably green in color (L&N 2.30).

235 sn Carnelian was a semiprecious gemstone, usually red in color (L&N 2.36).

236 tn Or “a rainbow emerald-like in appearance.”

237 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

238 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the words “They were” to indicate the connection to the preceding material.

239 sn See the note on the word crown in Rev 3:11.

240 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

241 tn Or “sounds,” “voices.” It is not entirely clear what this refers to. BDAG 1071 s.v. φωνή 1 states, “In Rv we have ἀστραπαὶ καὶ φωναὶ καὶ βρονταί (cp. Ex 19:16) 4:5; 8:5; 11:19; 16:18 (are certain other sounds in nature thought of here in addition to thunder, as e.g. the roar of the storm?…).”

242 sn Some interpret the seven spirits of God as angelic beings, while others see them as a reference to the sevenfold ministry of the Holy Spirit.

243 tn This could refer to rock crystal, but it is possible this refers to ice (an older meaning). See BDAG 571 s.v. κρύσταλλος.

244 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

245 tn Perhaps, “in the middle of the throne area” (see L&N 83.10).

246 tn On the meaning of ζῴον (zwon) BDAG 431 s.v. 2 states, “Of the four peculiar beings at God’s throne, whose description Rv 4:6-9 reminds one of the ζῷα in Ezk 1:5ff, the cherubim. S. also Rv 5:6, 8, 11, 14; 6:1, 3, 5-7; 7:11; 14:3; 15:7; 19:4.”

247 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

248 tn Both here and before the phrase “the third,” καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

249 tn Grk “six wings apiece,” but this is redundant with “each one” in English.

250 tn Some translations render ἔσωθεν (eswqen) as “under [its] wings,” but the description could also mean “filled all around on the outside and on the inside with eyes.” Since the referent is not available to the interpreter, the exact force is difficult to determine.

251 tn Or “They never stop saying day and night.”

252 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

sn A quotation from (or an allusion to) Isa 6:3.

253 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

254 tn Grk “the twenty-four elders fall down.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

255 sn See the note on the word crown in Rev 3:11.

256 tn The pronoun “his” is understood from the demonstrative force of the article τοῦ (tou) before θρόνου (qronou).

257 tc The past tense of “they existed” (ἦσαν, hsan) and the order of the expression “they existed and were created” seems backwards both logically and chronologically. The text as it stands is the more difficult reading and seems to have given rise to codex A omitting the final “they were created,” 2329 replacing “they existed” (ἦσαν) with “have come into being” (ἐγένοντο, egeneto), and 046 adding οὐκ (ouk, “not”) before ἦσαν (“they did not exist, [but were created]”). Several mss (1854 2050 ÏA sa) also attempt to alleviate the problem by replacing ἦσαν with “they are” (εἰσιν, eisin).

258 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

259 tn Grk “written on the inside and the outside” (an idiom for having writing on both sides).

260 tn L&N 6.55 states, “From the immediate context of Re 5:1 it is not possible to determine whether the scroll in question had seven seals on the outside or whether the scroll was sealed at seven different points. However, since according to chapter six of Revelation the seals were broken one after another, it would appear as though the scroll had been sealed at seven different places as it had been rolled up.”

261 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

262 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of no one being found worthy to open the scroll.

263 tn Grk “much.”

264 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

265 tn Grk “says” (a historical present).

266 tn The present imperative with μή (mh) is used here to command cessation of an action in progress (ExSyn 724 lists this verse as an example).

267 tn Or “has been victorious”; traditionally, “has overcome.”

268 tn The infinitive has been translated as an infinitive of result here.

269 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

270 tn Perhaps, “in the middle of the throne area” (see L&N 83.10).

271 tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.” The phrase behind this translation is ὡς ἐσφαγμένον (Jw" ejsfagmenon). The particle ὡς is used in Greek generally for comparison, and in Revelation it is used often to describe the appearance of what the author saw. This phrase does not imply that the Lamb “appeared to have been killed” but in reality was not, because the wider context of the NT shows that in fact the Lamb, i.e., Jesus, was killed. See 13:3 for the only other occurrence of this phrase in the NT.

272 tn Grk “killed, having.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “he.”

273 sn The relative pronoun which is masculine, referring back to the eyes rather than to the horns.

274 tc There is good ms evidence for the inclusion of “seven” (ἑπτά, Jepta; Ì24 א 2053 2351 ÏK). There is equally good ms support for the omission of the term (A 1006 1611 ÏA pc). It may have been accidentally added due to its repeated presence in the immediately preceding phrases, or it may have been intentionally added to maintain the symmetry of the phrases or more likely to harmonize the phrase with 1:4; 3:1; 4:5. Or it may have been accidentally deleted by way of homoioteleuton (τὰ ἑπτά, ta Jepta). A decision is difficult in this instance. NA27 also does not find the problem easy to solve, placing the word in brackets to indicate doubts as to its authenticity.

275 sn See the note on the phrase the seven spirits of God in Rev 4:5.

276 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

277 tn The words “the scroll” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

278 tn Grk “fell down.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

279 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

280 sn This interpretive comment by the author forms a parenthesis in the narrative.

281 tn The redundant participle λέγοντες (legontes) has not been translated here.

282 tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.”

283 tn The preposition ἐν (en) is taken to indicate price here, like the Hebrew preposition ב (bet) does at times. BDAG 329 s.v. ἐν 5.b states, “The ἐν which takes the place of the gen. of price is also instrumental ἠγόρασας ἐν τῷ αἵματί σου Rv 5:9 (cp. 1 Ch 21:24 ἀγοράζω ἐν ἀργυρίῳ).”

284 tc The Greek text as it stands above (i.e., the reading τῷ θεῷ [tw qew] alone) is found in codex A. א 2050 2344 Ï sy add the term “us” (ἡμᾶς, Jhmas), either before or after τῷ θεῷ, as an attempt to clarify the object of “purchased” (ἠγόρασας, hgorasa"). A few mss (1 vgms) delete the reference to God altogether and simply replace it with “us” (ἡμᾶς). This too is an attempt to remove ambiguity in the phrase and provide an object for “purchased.” The shorter reading, supported by the best witness for Revelation, best accounts for the other readings.

285 tn The word “persons” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

286 tn Grk “and language,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

287 tn The verb ἐποίησας (epoihsas) is understood to mean “appointed” here. For an example of this use, see Mark 3:14.

288 tc The vast majority of witnesses have αὐτούς (autous, “them”) here, while the Textus Receptus reads ἡμᾶς (Jhmas, “us”) with insignificant support (pc gig vgcl sa Prim Bea). There is no question that the original text read αὐτούς here.

289 tn The reference to “kingdom and priests” may be a hendiadys: “priestly kingdom.”

290 tn The words “to serve” are not in the Greek text, but are implied by the word “priests.”

291 tc The textual problem here between the present tense βασιλεύουσιν (basileuousin, “they are reigning”; so A 1006 1611 ÏK pc) and the future βασιλεύσουσιν (basileusousin, “they will reign”; so א 1854 2053 ÏA pc lat co) is a difficult one. Both readings have excellent support. On the one hand, the present tense seems to be the harder reading in this context. On the other hand, codex A elsewhere mistakes the future for the present (20:6). Further, the lunar sigma in uncial script could have been overlooked by some scribes, resulting in the present tense. All things considered, there is a slight preference for the future.

292 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

293 tn Grk “elders, and the number of them was.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

294 tn Or “myriads of myriads.” Although μυριάς (murias) literally means “10,000,” the point of the combination here may simply be to indicate an incalculably huge number. See L&N 60.9.

295 tn The words “all of whom” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied to indicate the resumption of the phrase “the voice of many angels” at the beginning of the verse.

296 tn Grk “saying.”

297 tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.”

298 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

299 tn Grk “saying.”

300 tn Or “dominion.”

301 tn Grk “fell down.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

302 tn Grk “saying like a voice [or sound] of thunder.”

303 tc The addition of “and see” (καὶ ἴδε or καὶ βλέπε [kai ide or kai blepe]) to “come” (ἔρχου, ercou) in 6:1, 3-5, 7 is a gloss directed to John, i.e., “come and look at the seals and the horsemen!” But the command ἔρχου is better interpreted as directed to each of the horsemen. The shorter reading also has the support of the better witnesses.

304 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of hearing the voice summon the first rider.

305 tc The reading “and I looked” (καὶ εἶδον, kai eidon) or some slight variation (e.g., ἶδον, idon) has excellent ms support ({א A C P 1611}) and its omission seems to come through the mss that have already placed “and look” (καὶ ἴδε or καὶ βλέπε [kai ide or kai blepe]) after the verb “come” (ἔρχου, ercou) as mentioned in the text-critical note on 6:1. Thus, for these copyists it was redundant to add “and I looked” again.

306 tn The phrase “and here came” expresses the sense of καὶ ἰδού (kai idou).

307 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

308 tn Grk “the one sitting on it.”

sn The one who rode it. The identity of the first rider on the white horse has been discussed at great length by interpreters. Several answers are given: (1) A number understand the rider on the white horse to be Christ himself, identifying this horse and rider with the one mentioned in 19:11, where the identification is clear (cf. 19:13, 16). It must be noted, though, that there is little in common between the two riders beyond the white horse. The word for “crown” is different, the armament is different, and the context here is different (conquest vs. retribution), with three other horsemen bringing catastrophe following. (2) Others see the rider on the white horse representing a spirit of military conquest that dominates human history and leads to the catastrophes that follow. (3) Another possibility is that the white horse rider represents the Antichrist, who appears later in Rev 11:7; 13:17, and whose similarity to Christ explains the similarity with the rider in 19:11. This interpretation has been discussed at length by M. Rissi, “The Rider on the White Horse: A Study of Revelation 6:1-8,” Int 18 (1964): 407-18. This interpretation is the most probable one.

309 sn See the note on the word crown in Rev 3:11.

310 tn The participle νικῶν (nikwn) has been translated as substantival, the subject of the verb ἐξῆλθεν (exhlqen). Otherwise, as an adverbial participle of manner, it is somewhat redundant: “he rode out conquering and to conquer.”

311 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

312 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the Lamb) has been specified in the translation for clarity here and throughout the rest of the chapter.

313 tn L&N 79.31 states, “‘fiery red’ (probably with a tinge of yellow or orange).”

314 tn Grk “the one sitting on it.”

315 tn The word “permission” is implied; Grk “it was given to him to take peace from the earth.”

316 tn BDAG 979 s.v. σφάζω states, “Of the killing of a person by violence…σφάζειν τινά butcher or murder someone (4 Km 10:7; Jer 52:10; Manetho: 609 fgm. 8, 76 Jac. [in Jos., C. Ap. 1, 76]; Demetr.[?]: 722 fgm. 7; Ar. 10, 9) 1J 3:12; Rv 6:4. Pass. (Hdt. 5, 5) 5:9; 6:9; 18:24.”

317 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

318 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the summons by the third creature.

319 tc The reading “and I looked” (καὶ εἶδον, kai eidon) or some slight variation (e.g., ἶδον, idon) has excellent ms support ({א A C P 1611}) and its omission seems to have come through the mss that have already placed “and look” (καὶ ἴδε or καὶ βλέπε [kai ide or kai blepe]) after the verb “come” (ἔρχου, ercou) in 6:1. Thus, for these copyists it was redundant to add “and I looked” again.

320 tn The phrase “and here came” expresses the sense of καὶ ἰδού (kai idou).

321 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

322 tn Grk “the one sitting on it.”

323 sn A balance scale would have been a rod held by a rope in the middle with pans attached to both ends for measuring.

324 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

325 tn BDAG 1086 s.v. χοῖνιξ states, “a dry measure, oft. used for grain, approximately equivalent to one quart or one liter, quart. A χ.of grain was a daily ration for one pers.…Rv 6:6ab.”

326 tn Grk “a quart of wheat for a denarius.” A denarius was one day’s pay for an average worker. The words “will cost” are used to indicate the genitive of price or value; otherwise the English reader could understand the phrase to mean “a quart of wheat to be given as a day’s pay.”

327 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

328 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

329 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the summons by the fourth creature.

330 tc The reading “and I looked” (καὶ εἶδον, kai eidon) or some slight variation (e.g., ἶδον, idon) has excellent ms support ({א A C P 1611}) and its omission seems to have come through the mss that have already placed “and look” (καὶ ἴδε or καὶ βλέπε [kai ide or kai blepe]) after the verb “come” (ἔρχου, ercou) in 6:1. Thus, for these copyists it was redundant to add “and I looked” again.

331 tn The phrase “and here came” expresses the sense of καὶ ἰδού (kai idou).

332 tn A sickly pallor, when referring to persons, or the green color of plants. BDAG 1085 s.v. χλωρός 2 states, “pale, greenish gray…as the color of a pers. in sickness contrasted with appearance in health…so the horse ridden by Death…ἵππος χλωρός Rv 6:8.” Because the color of the horse is symbolic, “pale green” is used in the translation. Cf. NIV, NCV “pale”; NASB “ashen.”

333 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

334 tn Grk “the one sitting on it.”

335 tn Grk “And Hades was following with him.” The Greek expression μετ᾿ αὐτοῦ (met autou, “with him”) is Semitic and indicates close proximity. The translation “followed right behind” reflects this.

336 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

337 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

338 tn Grk “with death.” θάνατος (qanatos) can in particular contexts refer to a manner of death, specifically a contagious disease (see BDAG 443 s.v. 3; L&N 23.158).

339 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of a new and somewhat different topic after the introduction of the four riders.

340 tn Or “murdered.” See the note on the word “butcher” in 6:4.

341 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

342 tn Grk “voice, saying”; the participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated here.

343 tn The expression ἕως πότε (ews pote) was translated “how long.” Cf. BDAG 423 s.v. ἕως 1.b.γ.

344 tn The Greek term here is δεσπότης (despoths; see L&N 37.63).

345 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

346 tn Grk “until they had been completed.” The idea of a certain “number” of people is implied by the subject of πληρωθῶσιν (plhrwqwsin).

347 tn Though σύνδουλος (sundoulos) has been translated “fellow servant,” the word does not bear the connotation of a free individual serving another. See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

348 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

349 tn Or “powerful”; Grk “a great.”

350 tn Or “like hairy sackcloth” (L&N 8.13).

351 tn Grk “like blood,” understanding αἷμα (aima) as a blood-red color rather than actual blood (L&N 8.64).

352 tn Or “in heaven” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”). The genitive τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (tou ouranou) is taken as a genitive of place.

353 tn Grk “throws [off]”; the indicative verb has been translated as a participle due to English style.

354 tn L&N 3.37 states, “a fig produced late in the summer season (and often falling off before it ripens) – ‘late fig.’ ὡς συκὴ βάλλει τοὺς ὀλύνθους αὐτῆς ὑπὸ ἀνέμου μεγάλου σειομένη ‘as the fig tree sheds its late figs when shaken by a great wind’ Re 6:13. In the only context in which ὄλυνθος occurs in the NT (Re 6:13), one may employ an expression such as ‘unripe fig’ or ‘fig which ripens late.’”

355 tn Grk “great wind.”

356 tn Or “The heavens were.” The Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) can mean either “heaven” or “sky.”

357 tn BDAG 125 s.v. ἀποχωρίζω states, “ὁ οὐρανὸς ἀπεχωρίσθη the sky was split Rv 6:14.” Although L&N 79.120 gives the meaning “the sky disappeared like a rolled-up scroll” here, a scroll that is rolled up does not “disappear,” and such a translation could be difficult for modern readers to understand.

358 tn On this term BDAG 317 s.v. ἑλίσσω states, “ὡς βιβλίον ἑλισσόμενον like a scroll that is rolled upRv 6:14.”

359 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

360 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated; nor is it translated before each of the following categories, since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

361 tn Grk “chiliarchs.” A chiliarch was normally a military officer commanding a thousand soldiers, but here probably used of higher-ranking commanders like generals (see L&N 55.15; cf. Rev 6:15).

362 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

363 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

364 tn It is difficult to say where this quotation ends. The translation ends it after “withstand it” at the end of v. 17, but it is possible that it should end here, after “Lamb” at the end of v. 16. If it ends after “Lamb,” v. 17 is a parenthetical explanation by the author.

365 tc Most mss (A Ï bo) change the pronoun “their” to “his” (αὐτοῦ, autou) in order to bring the text in line with the mention of the one seated on the throne in the immediately preceding verse, and to remove the ambiguity about whose wrath is in view here. The reading αὐτῶν (autwn, “their”) is well supported by א C 1611 1854 2053 2329 2344 pc latt sy. On both internal and external grounds, it should be regarded as original.

366 tn The translation “to withstand (it)” for ἵστημι (Jisthmi) is based on the imagery of holding one’s ground in a military campaign or an attack (BDAG 482 s.v. B.4).

367 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

368 tn Grk “from the rising of the sun.” BDAG 74 s.v. ἀνατολή 2.a takes this as a geographical direction: “ἀπὸ ἀ. ἡλίουfrom the east Rv 7:2; 16:12…simply ἀπὸ ἀ. …21:13.”

369 tn Grk “having,” but v. 3 makes it clear that the angel’s purpose is to seal others with the seal he carries.

370 tn Or “signet” (L&N 6.54).

371 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

372 tn The word “permission” is implied; Grk “to whom it was given to them to damage the earth.”

373 tn Grk “saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

374 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

375 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of new but related material.

376 tn Grk “who were sealed.”

377 tn Normally, “every,” but since 144,000 is the total number, “all” is clearer here.

378 tn Grk “the sons of Israel,” normally an idiom for the Israelites as an ethnic entity (L&N 11.58). However, many scholars understand the expression in this context to refer to Christians rather than ethnic Israelites.

379 tn The phrase “and here was” expresses the sense of καὶ ἰδού (kai idou).

380 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated before each of the following categories, since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

381 tn The dative here has been translated as a dative of possession.

382 tn The verb is pluperfect, but the force is simple past. See ExSyn 586.

383 tn Grk “they fell down on their faces.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

384 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

385 tn Grk “spoke” or “declared to,” but in the context “asked” reads more naturally in English.

386 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the previous question.

387 tn Though the expression “the answer” is not in the Greek text, it is clearly implied. Direct objects in Greek were frequently omitted when clear from the context.

388 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

389 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

390 tn Or “worship.” The word here is λατρεύω (latreuw).

391 tn Grk “will spread his tent over them,” normally an idiom for taking up residence with someone, but when combined with the preposition ἐπί (epi, “over”) the idea is one of extending protection or shelter (BDAG 929 s.v. σκηνόω).

392 tn An allusion to Isa 49:10. The phrase “burning heat” is one word in Greek (καῦμα, kauma) that refers to a burning, intensely-felt heat. See BDAG 536 s.v.

393 sn An allusion to Isa 25:8.

394 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the resumption of the topic of the seals.

395 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the Lamb) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

396 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

397 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

398 tn Grk “having.”

399 sn A golden censer was a bowl in which incense was burned. The imagery suggests the OT role of the priest.

400 tn The verb “to station” was used to translate ἑστάθη (Jestaqh) because it connotes the idea of purposeful arrangement in English, which seems to be the idea in the Greek.

401 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

402 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

403 tn The expression τῶν θυμιαμάτων (twn qumiamatwn) is taken as a “genitive of producer,” i.e., the noun in the genitive produces the head noun.

404 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

405 tn Or “sounds,” “voices.” It is not entirely clear what this refers to. BDAG 1071 s.v. φωνή 1 states, “In Rv we have ἀστραπαὶ καὶ φωναὶ καὶ βρονταί (cp. Ex 19:16) 4:5; 8:5; 11:19; 16:18 (are certain other sounds in nature thought of here in addition to thunder, as e.g. the roar of the storm?…).”

406 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

407 tn Grk “having.”

408 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

409 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so that” because what follows has the logical force of a result clause.

410 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

411 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

412 tn Or “a third of the living creatures in the sea”; Grk “the third of the creatures which were in the sea, the ones having life.”

413 tn On the term translated “completely destroyed,” L&N 20.40 states, “to cause the complete destruction of someone or something – ‘to destroy utterly.’ τὸ τρίτον τῶν πλοίων διεφθάρησαν ‘a third of the ships were completely destroyed’ Re 8:9.”

414 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

415 tn Or “from heaven” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

416 tn Grk “fell.”

417 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” in keeping with the parenthetical nature of this remark.

418 tn Grk “is called,” but this is somewhat redundant in contemporary English.

419 sn Wormwood refers to a particularly bitter herb with medicinal value. According to L&N 3.21, “The English term wormwood is derived from the use of the plant as a medicine to kill intestinal worms.” This remark about the star’s name is parenthetical in nature.

420 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the star falling on the waters.

421 tn That is, terribly bitter (see the note on “Wormwood” earlier in this verse).

422 tn Grk “and many of the men died from these waters because they were bitter.”

423 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

424 tn Grk “the day did not shine [with respect to] the third of it.”

425 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

426 tn Grk “one eagle.”

427 tc ÏA reads “angel” (ἀγγέλου, angelou) instead of “eagle” (ἀετοῦ, aetou), a reading strongly supported by {א A 046 ÏK and several versions}. On external grounds, ἀετοῦ is clearly the superior reading. ἀγγέλου could have arisen inadvertently due to similarities in spelling or sound between ἀετοῦ and ἀγγέλου. It may also have been intentional in order to bring this statement in line with 14:6 where an angel is mentioned as the one flying in midair. This seems a more likely reason, strengthened by the facts that the book only mentions eagles two other times (4:7; 12:14). Further, the immediate as well as broad context is replete with references to angels.

428 tn Concerning the word μεσουράνημα (mesouranhma), L&N 1.10 states, “a point or region of the sky directly above the earth – ‘high in the sky, midpoint in the sky, directly overhead, straight above in the sky.’ εἶδον, καὶ ἤκουσα ἑνὸς ἁετοῦ πετομένου ἐν μεσουρανήματι ‘I looked, and I heard an eagle that was flying overhead in the sky’ Re 8:13.”

429 tn Grk “about to sound their trumpets,” but this is redundant in English.

430 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

431 tn Or “from heaven” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

432 tn On this term BDAG 2 s.v. ἄβυσσος 2 states, “netherworld, abyss, esp. the abode of the dead Ro 10:7 (Ps 106:26) and of demons Lk 8:31; dungeon where the devil is kept Rv 20:3; abode of the θηρίον, the Antichrist 11:7; 17:8; of ᾿Αβαδδών (q.v.), the angel of the underworld 9:11φρέαρ τῆς ἀ. 9:1f; capable of being sealed 9:1; 20:1, 3.”

433 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

434 tn Grk “the shaft,” but since this would be somewhat redundant in English, the pronoun “it” is used here.

435 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

436 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

437 tn See BDAG 352 s.v. ἐξουσία 2, “potential or resource to command, control, or govern, capability, might, power.

438 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

439 tn The dative indirect object (αὐταῖς, autais) was converted into the subject (“they”) as this more closely approximates English usage. The following ἵ῞να (Jina) is taken as substantival, introducing a direct object clause. In this case, because it is reported speech, the ἵνα is similar to the declarative ὅτι (Joti).

440 tn Grk “men”; but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used in a generic sense here of both men and women.

441 tn The article τῶν (twn) has been translated as a possessive pronoun here (ExSyn 215).

442 tn Grk “It was not permitted to them”; the referent (the locusts) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

443 tn The word “permission” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

444 tn The two ἵνα (Jina) clauses of 9:5 are understood to be functioning as epexegetical or complementary clauses related to ἐδόθη (edoqh).

445 tn On this term BDAG 168 s.v. βασανισμός states, “1. infliction of severe suffering or pain associated with torture or torment, tormenting, torture Rv 9:5b. – 2. the severe pain experienced through torture, torment vs. 5a; 14:11; 18:10, 15; (w. πένθος) vs. 7.”

446 tn The pronoun “them” is not in the Greek text but is picked up from the previous clause.

447 tn Grk “like the torture,” but this is redundant in contemporary English.

448 tn Grk “a man”; but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used here in an individualized sense without being limited to the male gender.

449 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

450 tn Grk “men”; but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used in a generic sense here of both men and women.

451 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

452 tn The phrase “not be able to” was used in the translation to emphasize the strong negation (οὐ μή, ou mh) in the Greek text.

453 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of the description of the locusts, which is somewhat parenthetical in the narrative.

454 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

455 tn The translation attempts to bring out the double uncertainty in this clause in the Greek text, involving both the form (ὡς στέφανοι, Jw" stefanoi, “like crowns”) and the material (ὅμοιοι χρυσῷ, {omoioi crusw, “similar to gold”).

456 tn Or “human faces.” The Greek term ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpos) is often used in a generic sense, referring to both men and women. However, because “women’s hair” in the next clause suggests a possible gender distinction here, “men’s” was retained.

457 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

458 tn Or perhaps, “scales like iron breastplates” (RSV, NRSV) although the Greek term θώραξ (qwrax) would have to shift its meaning within the clause, and elsewhere in biblical usage (e.g., Eph 6:14; 1 Thess 5:8) it normally means “breastplate.” See also L&N 8.38.

459 tn In the Greek text there is a shift to the present tense here; the previous verbs translated “had” are imperfects.

460 tn See BDAG 352 s.v. ἐξουσία 2, “potential or resource to command, control, or govern, capability, might, power.

461 sn Both the Hebrew Abaddon and the Greek Apollyon mean “Destroyer.”

462 tn Grk “behold.” Here ἰδού (idou) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in the context.

463 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

464 tc ‡ Several key mss (Ì47 א1 A 0207 1611 2053 2344 pc lat syh co) lack the word τεσσάρων (tessarwn, “four”) before κεράτων (keratwn, “horns”). The word seems to have been added by scribes because a “horned” altar (described in the OT [Exod 30:2, 10]) could have only four “horns” or projections at the corners. NA27 includes the word in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

465 tn Grk “having.”

466 tn On λῦσον (luson) BDAG 606-7 s.v. λύω 2 states, “set free, loose, untie – a. lit. a pers., animal, or thing that is bound or tied…Angels that are bound Rv 9:14f.”

467 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

468 tn The Greek article τήν (thn) has been translated with demonstrative force here.

469 tn The Greek term καί (kai) has not been translated here and before the following term “month” since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

470 tn Grk “so that they might kill,” but the English infinitive is an equivalent construction to indicate purpose here.

471 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

472 tn Grk “twenty thousand of ten thousands.”

473 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of the description of the horses and riders, which is somewhat parenthetical in the narrative.

474 tn Grk “and those seated on them.”

475 tn Grk “the vision”; the Greek article has been translated as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

476 tn L&N 79.31 states, “‘fiery red’ (probably with a tinge of yellow or orange).”

477 tn On this term BDAG 1022 s.v. ὑακίνθινος states, “hyacinth-colored, i.e. dark blue (dark red?) w. πύρινος Rv 9:17.”

478 tn On this term BDAG 446 s.v. θειώδης states, “sulphurous Rv 9:17.”

479 sn The colors of the riders’ breastplates parallel the three plagues of fire, smoke, and sulfur in v. 18.

480 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

481 tn Traditionally, “brimstone.”

482 tn The phrase ἐκ τοῦ πυρὸς καὶ τοῦ καπνοῦ καὶ τοῦ θείου τοῦ ἐκπορευομένου ἐκ τῶν στομάτων αὐτῶν (“by the fire, the smoke, and the sulfur that came out of their mouths”) is taken as epexegetical (explanatory) to the phrase τῶν τριῶν πληγῶν τούτων (“these three plagues”).

483 tn See BDAG 352 s.v. ἐξουσία 2, “potential or resource to command, control, or govern, capability, might, power.

484 tn Grk “is.”

485 tn The word “made” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

486 tn The Greek conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here or before the following materials in this list, since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

487 tn Grk “and.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation, with “furthermore” used to indicate a continuation of the preceding.

488 tn On the term φαρμακεία (farmakeia, “magic spells”) see L&N 53.100: “the use of magic, often involving drugs and the casting of spells upon people – ‘to practice magic, to cast spells upon, to engage in sorcery, magic, sorcery.’ φαρμακεία: ἐν τῇ φαρμακείᾳ σου ἐπλανήθησαν πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ‘with your magic spells you deceived all the peoples (of the world)’ Re 18:23.”

489 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

490 tn Or “clothed.”

491 tn Or “like fiery pillars,” translating πυρός (puros) as an attributive genitive.

492 tn Grk “and having.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “he.”

493 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

494 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

495 tn The words “just then” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

496 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

497 tn On this phrase see BDAG 1092 s.v. χρόνος.

498 tn Grk “But in the days of the voice of the seventh angel.”

499 tn The aorist ἐτελέσθη (etelesqh) has been translated as a proleptic (futuristic) aorist (ExSyn 564 cites this verse as an example).

500 tn The time of the action described by the aorist εὐηγγέλισεν (euhngelisen) seems to be past with respect to the aorist passive ἐτελέσθη (etelesqh). This does not require that the prophets in view here be OT prophets. They may actually refer to the martyrs in the church (so G. B. Caird, Revelation [HNTC], 129).

501 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

502 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

503 tn The participle λαλοῦσαν (lalousan) has been translated as “began to speak.” The use of πάλιν (palin) indicates an ingressive idea.

504 tn Grk “with me.” The translation “with me” implies that John was engaged in a dialogue with the one speaking to him (e.g., Jesus or an angel) when in reality it was a one-sided conversation, with John doing all the listening. For this reason, μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ (met emou, “with me”) was translated as “to me.”

505 tn Grk “again, saying.” The participle λέγουσαν (legousan) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

506 tn The perfect passive participle ἠνεῳγμένον (hnewgmenon) is in second attributive position and has been translated as an attributive adjective.

507 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the instructions given by the voice.

508 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

509 tn The words “the scroll” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

510 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

511 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the instructions given by the angel.

512 tn Grk “it was.” The idea of taste is implied.

513 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

514 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

515 tn The referent of “they” is not clear in the Greek text.

516 tn Grk “and nations,” but καί (kai) has not been translated here or before the next item since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

517 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

518 tn Grk “a reed” (but these were used for measuring). Cf. Ezek 40:3ff.

519 tn Grk “saying.”

520 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

521 tn On the term αὐλήν (aulhn) BDAG 150 s.v. αὐλή 1 states, “(outer) court of the temple…Rv 11:2.”

522 tn The precise meaning of the phrase ἔκβαλε ἔξωθεν (ekbale exwqen) is difficult to determine.

523 tn Or “to the nations” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

524 sn The holy city appears to be a reference to Jerusalem. See also Luke 21:24.

525 tn The word “authority” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. “Power” would be another alternative that could be supplied here.

526 sn This description is parenthetical in nature.

527 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

528 tn This is a collective singular in Greek.

529 tn See L&N 20.45 for the translation of κατεσθίω (katesqiw) as “to destroy utterly, to consume completely.”

530 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

531 tn Or “authority.”

532 tn Grk “the days.”

533 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

534 tn Or “authority.”

535 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

536 tn Or “be victorious over”; traditionally, “overcome.”

537 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

538 tn The Greek word πλατεῖα (plateia) refers to a major (broad) street (L&N 1.103).

539 tn Grk “spiritually.”

540 tn The word “every” is not in the Greek text, but is implied by the following list.

541 tn The Greek term καί (kai) has not been translated before this and the following items in the list, since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

542 tn Or “to be buried.”

543 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

544 tn Grk “fell upon.”

545 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

546 tn Though the nearest antecedent to the subject of ἤκουσαν (hkousan) is the people (“those who were watching them”), it could also be (based on what immediately follows) that the two prophets are the ones who heard the voice.

547 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the two prophets) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

548 tn The conjunction καί (kai) seems to be introducing a temporal clause contemporaneous in time with the preceding clause.

549 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

550 tn Grk “seven thousand names of men.”

551 tn Grk “has passed.”

552 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

553 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

554 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

555 tn Grk “they fell down on their faces.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

556 tn Grk “saying.”

557 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

558 tn The aorist verb ἐβασίλευσας (ebasileusa") has been translated ingressively.

559 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

560 tn Or “The Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

561 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

562 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

563 tn Grk “who fear.”

564 tn The words “the time has come” do not occur except at the beginning of the verse; the phrase has been repeated for emphasis and contrast. The Greek has one finite verb (“has come”) with a compound subject (“your wrath,” “the time”), followed by three infinitive clauses (“to be judged,” “to give,” “to destroy”). The rhetorical power of the repetition of the finite verb in English thus emulates the rhetorical power of its lone instance in Greek.

565 tn Or “who deprave.” There is a possible wordplay here on two meanings for διαφθείρω (diafqeirw), with the first meaning “destroy” and the second meaning either “to ruin” or “to make morally corrupt.” See L&N 20.40.

566 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence on events within the vision.

567 tn Or “sounds,” “voices.” It is not entirely clear what this refers to. BDAG 1071 s.v. φωνή 1 states, “In Rv we have ἀστραπαὶ καὶ φωναὶ καὶ βρονταί (cp. Ex 19:16) 4:5; 8:5; 11:19; 16:18 (are certain other sounds in nature thought of here in addition to thunder, as e.g. the roar of the storm?…).”

568 tn Although BDAG 1075 s.v. χάλαζα gives the meaning “hail” here, it is not clear whether the adjective μεγάλη (megalh) refers to the intensity of the storm or the size of the individual hailstones, or both.

569 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

570 sn Sunmoonstars. This imagery is frequently identified with the nation Israel because of Joseph’s dream in Gen 37.

571 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

572 tn Grk “and being tortured,” though βασανίζω (basanizw) in this context refers to birth pangs. BDAG 168 s.v. 2.b states, “Of birth-pangs (Anth. Pal. 9, 311 βάσανος has this mng.) Rv 12:2.” The καί (kai) has not been translated.

573 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

574 tn For the translation of διάδημα (diadhma) as “diadem crown” see L&N 6.196.

sn Diadem crowns were a type of crown used as a symbol of the highest ruling authority in a given area, and thus often associated with kingship.

575 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate that this remark is virtually parenthetical.

576 tn Grk “its”; the referent (the dragon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

577 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

578 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the conclusion of the anticipated birth.

579 tn On this term BDAG 135 s.v. ἄρσην states: “male…The neut. ἄρσεν Rv 12:5, difft. vs. 13, comes fr. Is 66:7 and is in apposition to υἱόν. On the juxtaposition s. FBoll, ZNW 15, 1914, 253; BOlsson, Glotta 23, ’34, 112.”

580 tn Grk “shepherd.”

581 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

582 tn Or “scepter.” The Greek term ῥάβδος (rJabdo") can mean either “rod” or “scepter.”

sn An allusion to Ps 2:9 (see also Rev 2:27; 19:15).

583 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

584 tn Grk “and the woman,” which would be somewhat redundant in English.

585 tn Or “desert.”

586 tn Grk “where she has there a place prepared by God.”

587 tn Grk “so they can take care of her.”

588 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

589 sn The archangel Michael had a special role in protecting the nation of Israel in the OT (Dan 10:13, 21; 12:1; see also Jude 9).

590 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the implied contrast.

591 tn The words “to prevail” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

592 tn Grk “found.”

593 tn Grk “for them”; the referent (the dragon and his angels, v. 7) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

594 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the war in heaven.

595 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

596 tn Or “the right of his Messiah to rule.” See L&N 37.35.

597 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

598 tn Grk “brothers,” but the Greek word may be used for “brothers and sisters” or “fellow Christians” (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 1, where considerable nonbiblical evidence for the plural ἀδελφοί [adelfoi] meaning “brothers and sisters” is cited). The translation “fellow believer” would normally apply (L&N 11.23), but since the speaker(s) are not specified in this context, it is not clear if such a translation would be appropriate here. The more generic “brothers and sisters” was chosen to emphasize the fact of a relationship without specifying its type.

599 tn Or “who accuses them continually.”

600 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast.

601 sn They did not love their lives. See Matt 16:25; Luke 17:33; John 12:25.

602 tn The word “But” is not in the Greek text, but the contrast is clearly implied. This is a case of asyndeton (lack of a connective).

603 tn Grk “and is filled,” a continuation of the previous sentence. Because English tends to use shorter sentences (especially when exclamations are involved), a new sentence was started here in the translation.

604 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” because the clause it introduces is clearly resumptive.

605 tn Grk “saw.”

606 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present here.

607 tn Or “desert.”

608 tn The word “God” is supplied based on the previous statements made concerning “the place prepared for the woman” in 12:6.

609 tc The reading “and half a time” (καὶ ἥμισυ καιροῦ, kai {hmisu kairou) is lacking in the important uncial C. Its inclusion, however, is supported by {Ì47 א A and the rest of the ms tradition}. There is apparently no reason for the scribe of C to intentionally omit the phrase, and the fact that the word “time” (καιρὸν καὶ καιρούς, kairon kai kairou") appears twice before may indicate a scribal oversight.

sn The parallel statement in Rev 12:6 suggests that the phrase a time, times, and half a time equals 1,260 days (three and a half years of 360 days each).

610 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

611 tn Grk “so that he might make her swept away.”

612 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present here.

613 tn Grk “the earth helped the woman.”

614 tn Grk “the earth opened its mouth” (a metaphor for the ground splitting open).

615 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the woman’s escape.

616 tn Grk “her seed” (an idiom for offspring, children, or descendants).

617 tn Or “who obey.”

618 tn Grk “and having.”

619 tn Grk “the testimony of Jesus,” which may involve a subjective genitive (“Jesus’ testimony”) or, more likely, an objective genitive (“testimony about Jesus”).

620 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the dragon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

621 tc Grk ἐστάθη (estaqh, “he stood”). The reading followed by the translation is attested by the better mss (Ì47 א A C 1854 2344 2351 pc lat syh) while the majority of mss (051 Ï vgmss syph co) have the reading ἐστάθην (estaqhn, “I stood”). Thus, the majority of mss make the narrator, rather than the dragon of 12:17, the subject of the verb. The first person reading is most likely an assimilation to the following verb in 13:1, “I saw.” The reading “I stood” was introduced either by accident or to produce a smoother flow, giving the narrator a vantage point on the sea’s edge from which to observe the beast rising out of the sea in 13:1. But almost everywhere else in the book, the phrase καὶ εἶδον (kai eidon, “and I saw”) marks a transition to a new vision, without reference to the narrator’s activity. On both external and internal grounds, it is best to adopt the third person reading, “he stood.”

622 tn Or “sandy beach” (L&N 1.64).

623 sn The standard critical texts of the Greek NT, NA27 and UBS4, both include this sentence as 12:18, as do the RSV and NRSV. Other modern translations like the NASB and NIV include the sentence at the beginning of 13:1; in these versions chap. 12 has only 17 verses.

624 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

625 tn Grk “having” (a continuation of the previous sentence). All of the pronouns referring to this beast (along with the second beast appearing in 13:11) could be translated as “it” because the word for beast (θηρίον, qhrion) is neuter gender in Greek and all the pronouns related to it are parsed as neuter in the Gramcord/Accordance database. Nevertheless, most interpreters would agree that the beast ultimately represents a human ruler, so beginning at the end of v. 4 the masculine pronouns (“he,” “him,” etc.) are used to refer to the first beast as well as the second beast appearing in 13:11.

626 tn For the translation of διάδημα (diadhma) as “diadem crown” see L&N 6.196.

sn Diadem crowns were a type of crown used as a symbol of the highest ruling authority in a given area, and thus often associated with kingship.

627 tc ‡ Several mss (A 051 1611 1854 2053 2344 2351 ÏK) read the plural ὀνόματα (onomata, “[blasphemous] names”), while the singular ὄνομα (onoma, “name”) has somewhat better support (Ì47 א C 1006 1841 2329 ÏA). The plural reading seems motivated by the fact that what is written is written “on its heads.” In the least, it is a clarifying reading. NA27 puts the plural in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

sn Whether this means a single name on all seven heads or seven names, one on each head, is not clear.

628 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the parenthetical nature of the following description of the beast.

629 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

630 tn Grk “gave it”; the referent (the beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

631 tn For the translation “authority to rule” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

632 tn Grk “one of its heads”; the referent (the beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

633 tn Grk “killed to death,” an expression emphatic in its redundancy. The phrase behind this translation is ὡς ἐσφαγμένον (Jw" ejsfagmenon). The particle ὡς is used in Greek generally for comparison, and in Revelation it is used often to describe the appearance of what the author saw. In this instance, the appearance of the beast’s head did not match reality, because the next phrase shows that in fact it did not die. This text does not affirm that the beast died and was resurrected, but some draw this conclusion because of the only other use of the phrase, which refers to Jesus in 5:6.

634 tn The phrase τοῦ θανάτου (tou qanatou) can be translated as an attributive genitive (“deathly wound”) or an objective genitive (the wound which caused death) and the final αὐτοῦ (autou) is either possessive or reference/respect.

635 tn On the phrase “the whole world followed the beast in amazement,” BDAG 445 s.v. θαυμάζω 2 states, “wonder, be amazedRv 17:8. In pregnant constr. ἐθαυμάσθη ὅλη ἡ γῆ ὀπίσω τ. θηρίου the whole world followed the beast, full of wonder 13:3 (here wonder becomes worship: cp. Ael. Aristid. 13 p. 290 D.; 39 p. 747 of Dionysus and Heracles, οἳ ὑφ᾿ ἡμῶν ἐθαυμάσθησαν. Sir 7:29; Jos., Ant. 3, 65. – The act. is also found in this sense: Cebes 2, 3 θ. τινά = ‘admire’ or ‘venerate’ someone; Epict. 1, 17, 19 θ. τὸν θεόν).”

636 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

637 tn On the use of the masculine pronoun to refer to the beast, see the note on the word “It” in 13:1.

638 tn Grk “and there was given to him.” Here the passive construction has been simplified, the referent (the beast) has been specified for clarity, and καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

639 tn For the translation “proud words” (Grk “great things” or “important things”) see BDAG 624 s.v. μέγας 4.b.

640 tn Grk “to it was granted.”

641 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

642 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the permission granted to the beast.

643 tn Grk “he” (or “it”); the referent (the beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

644 tc The reading “and his dwelling place” does not occur in codex C, but its omission is probably due to scribal oversight since the phrase has the same ending as the phrase before it, i.e., they both end in “his” (αὐτοῦ, autou). This is similar to the mistake this scribe made in 12:14 with the omission of the reading “and half a time” (καὶ ἥμισυ καιροῦ, kai {hmisu kairou).

645 tn Grk “and it was given to him to go to war.” Here the passive construction has been simplified, the referent (the beast) has been specified for clarity, and καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

646 tc Many mss omit the phrase “it was given to make war with the saints and to overcome them” (Ì47 A C 2053 ÏA sa). It is, however, found in Ì115vid א 051 1006 (1611) 1841 (1854) 2329 2344 2351 (ÏK) lat syph,(h) bo. Although the ms evidence is somewhat in favor of the shorter reading, the support of Ì115 (a recently-discovered ms) for the longer reading balances things out. Normally, the shorter reading should be given preference. However, in an instance in which homoioteleuton could play a role, caution must be exercised. In this passage, accidental omission is quite likely. That this could have happened seems apparent from the two occurrences of the identical phrase “and it was given to him” (καὶ ἐδόθη αὐτῷ, kai edoqh autw) in v. 7. The scribe’s eye skipped over the first καὶ ἐδόθη αὐτῷ and went to the second, hence creating an accidental omission of eleven words.

647 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

648 tn Grk “and people,” but καί (kai) has not been translated here or before the following term since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

649 tn Grk “it”; the referent (the beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

650 tn The prepositional phrase “since the foundation of the world” is traditionally translated as a modifier of the immediately preceding phrase in the Greek text, “the Lamb who was killed” (so also G. B. Caird, Revelation [HNTC], 168), but it is more likely that the phrase “since the foundation of the world” modifies the verb “written” (as translated above). Confirmation of this can be found in Rev 17:8 where the phrase “written in the book of life since the foundation of the world” occurs with no ambiguity.

651 tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.”

652 tc Many mss (C 051* 2351 ÏA pc) read “if anyone will kill with the sword, it is necessary for him to be killed with the sword” (εἴ τις ἐν μαχαίρῃ ἀποκτενεῖ, δεῖ αὐτὸν ἐν μαχαίρῃ ἀποκτανθῆναι). Other mss (א 1006 1611* 1854 al) are similar except that they read a present tense “kills” (ἀποκτείνει, apokteinei) in this sentence. Both of these variants may be regarded as essentially saying the same thing. On the other hand, codex A reads “if anyone is to be killed by the sword, he is to be killed by the sword” (εἴ τις ἐν μαχαίρῃ ἀποκτανθῆναι αὐτὸν ἐν μαχαίρῃ ἀποκτανθῆναι). Thus the first two variants convey the idea of retribution, while the last variant, supported by codex A, does not. (There are actually a dozen variants here, evidence that scribes found the original text quite difficult. Only the most important variants are discussed in this note.) The first two variants seem to be in line with Jesus’ comments in Matt 26:52: “everyone who takes up the sword will die by the sword.” The last variant, however, seems to be taking up an idea found in Jer 15:2: “Those destined for death, to death; those for the sword, to the sword; those for starvation, to starvation; those for captivity, to captivity.” Though G. B. Caird, Revelation (HNTC), 169-70, gives four arguments in favor of the first reading (i.e., “whoever kills with the sword must with the sword be killed”), the arguments he puts forward can be read equally as well to support the latter alternative. In the end, the reading in codex A seems to be original. The fact that this sentence seems to be in parallel with 10a (which simply focuses on God’s will and suffering passively and is therefore akin to the reading in codex A), and that it most likely gave rise to the others as the most difficult reading, argues for its authenticity.

653 tn On ὧδε (Jwde) here, BDAG 1101 s.v. 2 states: “a ref. to a present event, object, or circumstance, in this case, at this point, on this occasion, under these circumstancesin this case moreover 1 Cor 4:2. ὧδε ἡ σοφία ἐστίνRv 13:18; cf. 17:9. ὧδέ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπομονή…13:10; 14:12.”

654 tn Or “perseverance.”

655 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

656 sn This second beast is identified in Rev 16:13 as “the false prophet.”

657 tn Grk “and it had,” a continuation of the preceding sentence. On the use of the pronoun “he” to refer to the second beast, see the note on the word “It” in 13:1.

658 tn Or perhaps, “like a ram.” Here L&N 4.25 states, “In the one context in the NT, namely, Re 13:11, in which ἀρνίον refers literally to a sheep, it is used in a phrase referring to the horns of an ἀρνίον. In such a context the reference is undoubtedly to a ‘ram,’ that is to say, the adult male of sheep.” In spite of this most translations render the word “lamb” here to maintain the connection between this false lamb and the true Lamb of the Book of Revelation, Jesus Christ.

659 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

660 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

661 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

662 tn For this meaning see BDAG 342 s.v. ἐνώπιον 4.b, “by the authority of, on behalf of Rv 13:12, 14; 19:20.”

663 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

664 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both men and women.

665 tn Grk “earth, telling.” This is a continuation of the previous sentence in Greek.

sn He told followed by an infinitive (“to make an image…”) is sufficiently ambiguous in Greek that it could be taken as “he ordered” (so NIV) or “he persuaded” (so REB).

666 tn Grk “it”; the referent (the second beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

667 tn Grk “it was given [permitted] to it [the second beast].”

668 tn Grk “breath,” but in context the point is that the image of the first beast is made to come to life and speak.

669 tn Grk “of the beast”; the word “first” has been supplied to specify the referent.

670 tn Or “forced”; Grk “makes” (ποιεῖ, poiei).

671 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

672 tn Grk “and that no one be able to buy or sell.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. Although the ἵνα (Jina) is left untranslated, the English conjunction “thus” is used to indicate that this is a result clause.

673 tn The word “things” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context. In the context of buying and selling, food could be primarily in view, but the more general “things” was used in the translation because the context is not specific.

674 tn Grk “except the one who had.”

675 tn Grk “his name or the number of his name.”

676 tn Grk “Here is wisdom.”

677 tn Grk “it is man’s number.” ExSyn 254 states “if ἀνθρώπου is generic, then the sense is, ‘It is [the] number of humankind.’ It is significant that this construction fits Apollonius’ Canon (i.e., both the head noun and the genitive are anarthrous), suggesting that if one of these nouns is definite, then the other is, too. Grammatically, those who contend that the sense is ‘it is [the] number of a man’ have the burden of proof on them (for they treat the head noun, ἀριθμός, as definite and the genitive, ἀνθρώπου, as indefinite – the rarest of all possibilities). In light of Johannine usage, we might also add Rev 16:18, where the Seer clearly uses the anarthrous ἄνθρωπος in a generic sense, meaning ‘humankind.’ The implications of this grammatical possibility, exegetically speaking, are simply that the number ‘666’ is the number that represents humankind. Of course, an individual is in view, but his number may be the number representing all of humankind. Thus the Seer might be suggesting here that the antichrist, who is the best representative of humanity without Christ (and the best counterfeit of a perfect man that his master, that old serpent, could muster), is still less than perfection (which would have been represented by the number seven).” See G. K. Beale, Revelation, [NIGTC], 723-24, who argues for the “generic” understanding of the noun; for an indefinite translation, see the ASV and ESV which both translate the clause as “it is the number of a man.”

sn The translation man’s number suggests that the beast’s number is symbolic of humanity in general, while the translation a man’s number suggests that it represents an individual.

678 tc A few mss (Ì115 C, along with a few mss known to Irenaeus {and two minuscule mss, 5 and 11, no longer extant}), read 616 here, and several other witnesses have other variations. Irenaeus’ mention of mss that have 616 is balanced by his rejection of such witnesses in this case. As intriguing as the reading 616 is (since the conversion of Nero Caesar’s name in Latin by way of gematria would come out to 616), it must remain suspect because such a reading seems motivated in that it conforms more neatly to Nero’s gematria.

679 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

680 tn The phrase “and here was” expresses the sense of καὶ ἰδού (kai idou).

681 tn Or “a voice” (cf. Rev 1:15), but since in this context nothing is mentioned as the content of the voice, it is preferable to translate φωνή (fwnh) as “sound” here.

682 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of a new topic.

683 tn Grk “elders, and no one.” This is a continuation of the previous sentence in the Greek text, but because of the length and complexity of the sentence a new sentence was started here in the translation.

684 tn The aorist passive verb is rendered as a reflexive (“defiled themselves”) by BDAG 657 s.v. μολύνω 2.

685 tn Grk “in their mouth was not found a lie.”

686 tc Several mss (Ì47 א 1 1006 1611 2351 ÏK pc) have the conjunction “for” (γάρ, gar) here so that the phrase reads: “for they are blameless.” Other important mss (A C P 1854 2053 al lat) lack the word. The shorter reading is to be preferred since the scribes were more likely to make the connection explicit through the addition of “for” than they would have been to omit the conjunction. As it is, the passage without the conjunction makes good sense and evokes a very somber tone.

687 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

688 tc Most mss (Ì47 א* Ï sa) lack ἄλλον (allon, “another”) here, but the support for it is stronger (Ì115vid א2 A C P 051 1006 1611 1841 2053 2329 al latt sy bo). The problem that its inclusion represents is that there is no reference to any other angel in the immediate context (the last mention was in 11:15). In this instance, the longer reading is harder. The word was probably intentionally omitted in order to resolve the tension; less likely, it might have been accidentally omitted since its spelling is similar to “angel” (ἄγγελος, angelos).

689 tn L&N 1.10 states, “a point or region of the sky directly above the earth – ‘high in the sky, midpoint in the sky, directly overhead, straight above in the sky.’”

690 tn Grk “having.”

691 tn Or “an eternal gospel to announce as good news.”

692 tn Grk “to those seated on the earth.”

693 tn Grk “and tribe,” but καί (kai) has not been translated here or before the following term since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

694 tn Grk “people, saying.” In the Greek text this is a continuation of the previous sentence. For the translation of λέγω (legw) as “declare,” see BDAG 590 s.v. 2.e.

695 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

696 tc There are several different variants comprising a textual problem involving “second” (δεύτερος, deuteros). First, several mss (A 1 2329 ÏK) read “another, a second angel” (ἄλλος δεύτερος ἄγγελος, allo" deutero" angelo"). Second, other mss (Ì47 א* 1006 1841 1854 pc) read just “another, a second” (ἄλλος δεύτερος). Third, the reading “another angel” (ἄλλος ἄγγελος) is supported by a few Greek mss and some versional evidence (69 pc ar vg). Fourth, several mss (א2 [C reads δεύτερον instead of δεύτερος] 051 1611 2053 2344 ÏA) support the reading “another, a second angel” (ἄλλος ἄγγελος δεύτερος). The reading that most likely gave rise to the others is the fourth. The first reading attempts to smooth out the grammar by placing the adjective in front of the noun. The second reading may have dropped out the “angel” on the basis of its similarity to “another” (ἄλλος). The third reading either intentionally or accidentally left out the word “second.” In any event, this is weakly attested and should not be given much consideration. (If, however, this reading had had good support, with “second” floating, and with “third” in the text in 14:9, one could possibly see δεύτερος as a motivated reading. But without sufficient support for the third reading, the one thing that is most certain is that δεύτερος was part of the original text here.) It is difficult to account for the rise of the other readings if “second” is not original. And the undisputed use of “third” (τρίτος, tritos) in 14:9 may be another indicator that the adjective “second” was in the original text. Finally, the fourth reading is the more difficult and therefore, in this case, to be accepted as the progenitor of the others.

697 tn Grk “And another angel, a second.”

698 tn The words “the first” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

699 tn For the translation of λέγω (legw) as “declare,” see BDAG 590 s.v. 2.e.

700 sn The fall of Babylon the great city is described in detail in Rev 18:2-24.

701 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

702 tn Grk “of the wine of the passion of the sexual immorality of her.” Here τῆς πορνείας (th" porneia") has been translated as an attributive genitive. In an ironic twist of fate, God will make Babylon drink her own mixture, but it will become the wine of his wrath in retribution for her immoral deeds (see the note on the word “wrath” in 16:19).

703 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

704 tn Grk “And another angel, a third.”

705 tn Grk “followed them.”

706 tn For the translation of λέγω (legw) as “declare,” see BDAG 590 s.v. 2.e.

707 tn Grk “he himself.”

708 tn The Greek word for “anger” here is θυμός (qumos), a wordplay on the “passion” (θυμός) of the personified city of Babylon in 14:8.

709 tn Traditionally, “brimstone.”

710 tn The Greek pronoun is plural here even though the verbs in the previous verse are singular.

711 tn The present tense ἀναβαίνει (anabainei) has been translated as a futuristic present (ExSyn 535-36). This is also consistent with the future passive βασανισθήσεται (basanisqhsetai) in v. 10.

712 tn The present tense ἔχουσιν (ecousin) has been translated as a futuristic present to keep the English tense consistent with the previous verb (see note on “will go up” earlier in this verse).

713 tn Grk “and.”

714 tn Grk “Here is.”

715 tn Or “the perseverance.”

716 tn Grk “who keep.”

717 tn The words “hold to” are implied as a repetition of the participle translated “keep” (οἱ τηροῦντες, Joi throunte").

718 tn Grk “faith of Jesus.” The construction may mean either “faith in Jesus” or “faithful to Jesus.” Either translation implies that ᾿Ιησοῦ (Ihsou) is to be taken as an objective genitive; the difference is more lexical than grammatical because πίστις (pistis) can mean either “faith” or “faithfulness.”

719 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

720 tn Or “from their trouble” (L&N 22.7).

721 tn Grk “their deeds will follow with them.”

722 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

723 tn Grk “and behold, a white cloud.”

724 tn This phrase constitutes an allusion to Dan 7:13. Concerning υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου (Juio" tou anqrwpou), BDAG 1026 s.v. υἱός 2.d.γ says: “ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου lit. ‘the son of the man’…‘the human being, the human one, the man’…On Israelite thought contemporary w. Jesus and alleged knowledge of a heavenly being looked upon as a ‘Son of Man’ or ‘Man’, who exercises Messianic functions such as judging the world (metaph., pictorial passages in En 46-48; 4 Esdr 13:3, 51f)…Outside the gospels: Ac 7:56Rv 1:13; 14:14 (both after Da 7:13…).” The term “son” here in this expression is anarthrous and as such lacks specificity. Some commentators and translations take the expression as an allusion to Daniel 7:13 and not to “the son of man” found in gospel traditions (e.g., Mark 8:31; 9:12; cf. D. E. Aune, Revelation [WBC], 2:800-801; cf. also NIV). Other commentators and versions, however, take the phrase “son of man” as definite, involving allusions to Dan 7:13 and “the son of man” gospel traditions (see G. K. Beale, Revelation [NIGTC], 771-72; NRSV).

725 tn Grk “like a son of man, having.” In the Greek text this is a continuation of the previous sentence.

726 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

727 tn Grk “Send out.”

728 tn The aorist θέρισον (qerison) has been translated ingressively.

729 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s directions.

730 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

731 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

732 tn Grk “who had authority over.” This appears to be the angel who tended the fire on the altar.

733 tn Grk “to the one having the sharp sickle”; the referent (the angel in v. 17) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

734 tn Grk “Send.”

735 tn On this term BDAG 1018 s.v. τρυγάω states: “‘gather in’ ripe fruit, esp. harvest (grapes) w. acc. of the fruit (POslo. 21, 13 [71 ad]; Jos., Ant. 4, 227) Lk 6:44; Rv 14:18 (in imagery, as in the foll. places)…W. acc. of that which bears the fruit gather the fruit of the vine…or the vineyard (s. ἄμπελος a) Rv 14:19.”

736 tn On this term BDAG 181 s.v. βότρυς states, “bunch of grapes Rv 14:18…The word is also found in the Phrygian Papias of Hierapolis, in a passage in which he speaks of the enormous size of the grapes in the new aeon (in the Lat. transl. in Irenaeus 5, 33, 2f.): dena millia botruum Papias (1:2). On this see Stephan. Byz. s.v. Εὐκαρπία: Metrophanes says that in the district of Εὐκαρπία in Phrygia Minor the grapes were said to be so large that one bunch of them caused a wagon to break down in the middle.”

737 tn The genitive τῆς γῆς (ths ghs), taken symbolically, could be considered a genitive of apposition.

738 tn Or perhaps, “its bunches of grapes” (a different Greek word from the previous clause). L&N 3.38 states, “the fruit of grapevines (see 3.27) – ‘grape, bunch of grapes.’ τρύγησον τοὺς βότρυας τῆς ἀμπέλου τῆς γῆς, ὅτι ἤκμασαν αἱ σταφυλαὶ αὐτῆς ‘cut the grapes from the vineyard of the earth because its grapes are ripe’ Re 14:18. Some scholars have contended that βότρυς means primarily a bunch of grapes, while σταφυλή designates individual grapes. In Re 14:18 this difference might seem plausible, but there is scarcely any evidence for such a distinction, since both words may signify grapes as well as bunches of grapes.”

739 tn On the use of ἥκμασαν (hkmasan) BDAG 36 s.v. ἀκμάζω states, “to bloom…of grapes…Rv 14:18.”

740 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s directions.

741 tn Or “vine.” BDAG 54 s.v. ἄμπελος a states, “τρυγᾶν τοὺς βότρυας τῆς ἀ. τῆς γῆς to harvest the grapes fr. the vine of the earth (i.e. fr. the earth, symbol. repr. as a grapevine) Rv 14:18f; but may be taking on the meaning of ἀμπελών, as oft. in pap., possibly PHib. 70b, 2 [III bc].” The latter alternative has been followed in the translation (ἀμπελών = “vineyard”).

742 tn Although the gender of μέγαν (megan, masc.) does not match the gender of ληνόν (lhnon, fem.) it has been taken to modify that word (as do most English translations).

743 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

744 sn The winepress was stomped. See Isa 63:3, where Messiah does this alone (usually several individuals would join in the process).

745 tn L&N 6.7 states, “In Re 14:20 the reference to a bit and bridle is merely an indication of measurement, that is to say, the height of the bit and bridle from the ground, and one may reinterpret this measurement as ‘about a meter and a half’ or ‘about five feet.’”

746 tn Grk “1,600 stades.” A stade was a measure of length about 607 ft (185 m). Thus the distance here would be 184 mi or 296 km.

747 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

748 tn Grk “seven plagues – the last ones.”

749 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

750 sn See Rev 4:6 where the sea of glass was mentioned previously.

751 tn Or “had been victorious over”; traditionally, “had overcome.”

752 tn Grk “of his name, standing.” A new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the words “They were.”

753 tn Or “on.” The preposition ἐπί (epi) with the accusative case could mean “on, at, by, near”; given the nature of this scene appearing in a vision, it is difficult to know precisely which the author of Revelation intended. See BDAG 363 s.v. ἐπί 1.c.γ, “At, by, near someone or someth.

754 tn Grk “harps of God.” The phrase τοῦ θεοῦ (tou qeou) has been translated as a genitive of agency.

755 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

756 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

757 tn Grk “saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

758 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

759 tn Or “righteous,” although the context favors justice as the theme.

760 tc Certain mss (Ì47 א*,2 C 1006 1611 1841 pc) read “ages” (αἰώνων, aiwnwn) instead of “nations” (ἐθνῶν, eqnwn), which itself is supported by several mss (א1 A 051 Ï). The ms evidence seems to be fairly balanced, though αἰώνων has somewhat better support. The replacement of “ages” with “nations” is possibly a scribal attempt to harmonize this verse with the use of “nations” in the following verse. On the other hand, the idea of “nations” fits well with v. 4 and it may be that “ages” is a scribal attempt to assimilate this text to 1 Tim 1:17: “the king of the ages” (βασιλεὺς τῶν αἰώνων, basileu" twn aiwnwn). The decision is a difficult one since both scenarios deal well with the evidence, though the verbal parallel with 1 Tim 1:17 is exact while the parallel with v. 4 is not. The term “king” occurs 17 other times (most occurrences refer to earthly kings) in Revelation and it is not used with either “ages” or “nations” apart from this verse. Probably the reading “nations” should be considered original due to the influence of 1 Tim 1:17.

761 tn Or “and praise.”

sn Jeremiah 10:7 probably stands behind the idea of fearing God, and Psalm 86:9-10 stands behind the ideas of glorifying God, his uniqueness, and the nations coming to worship him. Many other OT passages also speak about the nations “coming to his temple” to worship (Isa 2:2-3, 49:22-23, 66:23-24; Micah 4:2; Zech 8:20-22). See G. K. Beale, Revelation [NIGTC], 796-97.

762 sn Because you alone are holy. In the Greek text the sentence literally reads “because alone holy.” Three points can be made in connection with John’s language here: (1) Omitting the second person, singular verb “you are” lays stress on the attribute of God’s holiness. (2) The juxtaposition of alone with holy stresses the unique nature of God’s holiness and complete “otherness” in relationship to his creation. It is not just moral purity which is involved in the use of the term holy, though it certainly includes that. It is also the pervasive OT idea that although God is deeply involved in the governing of his creation, he is to be regarded as separate and distinct from it. (3) John’s use of the term holy is also intriguing since it is the term ὅσιος (Josios) and not the more common NT term ἅγιος (Jagios). The former term evokes images of Christ’s messianic status in early Christian preaching. Both Peter in Acts 2:27 and Paul in Acts 13:35 apply Psalm 16:10 (LXX) to Jesus, referring to him as the “holy one” (ὅσιος). It is also the key term in Acts 13:34 (Isa 55:3 [LXX]) where it refers to the “holy blessings” (i.e., forgiveness and justification) brought about through Jesus in fulfillment of Davidic promise. Thus, in Rev 15:3-4, when John refers to God as “holy,” using the term ὅσιος in a context where the emphasis is on both God and Christ, there might be an implicit connection between divinity and the Messiah. This is bolstered by the fact that the Lamb is referred to in other contexts as the King of Kings and Lord of Lords (cf. 1:5; 17:14; 19:16 and perhaps 11:15; G. K. Beale, Revelation [NIGTC], 796-97).

763 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

764 tn Or perhaps, “your sentences of condemnation.” On δικαίωμα (dikaiwma) in this context BDAG 249 s.v. 2. states, “righteous deedδι᾿ ἑνὸς δικαιώματος (opp. παράπτωμα) Ro 5:18. – B 1:2 (cp. Wengst, Barnabas-brief 196, n.4); Rv 15:4 (here perh.= ‘sentence of condemnation’ [cp. Pla., Leg. 9, 864e; ins fr. Asia Minor: LBW 41, 2 [κατὰ] τὸ δι[καί]ωμα τὸ κυρω[θέν]= ‘acc. to the sentence which has become valid’]; difft. Wengst, s. above); 19:8.”

765 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

766 tn On this term BDAG 928 s.v. σκηνή 1.b.α states, “ἡ σκηνὴ τοῦ μαρτυρίου the Tabernacle or Tent of Testimony (Ex 27:21; 29:4; Lev 1:1; Num 1:1 and oft.…) Ac 7:44; 1 Cl 43:2, 5,” and then continues in section 2 to state, “Rv 15:5 speaks of a ναὸς τῆς σκηνῆς τοῦ μαρτυρίου ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ. God’s σκ.= dwelling is in heaven 13:6, and will some time be among humans 21:3.”

767 tn Grk “the temple of the tent of the testimony” (ὁ ναός τῆς σκηνῆς τοῦ μαρτυρίου, Jo naos ths skhnhs tou marturiou). The genitive “of the tent” is probably an appositional genitive and should be rendered as “the temple, which is the tent.” The entire expression, then, would be “the temple which is the tent of testimony,” that is, “the heavenly equivalent of the tent or tabernacle that was with Israel in the wilderness” (G. K. Beale, Revelation [NIGTC], 801-2).

sn In the OT the expression “tent of the testimony” occurs frequently (130 times in Exodus through Deuteronomy). The “testimony” refers to the ten commandments, i.e., the revelation of the righteous will of God (Exod 16:34; 25:21; 31:18; 32:15; 40:24). It is little wonder that the wrath of God upon an unrighteous, lawbreaking humanity follows in John’s description.

768 tn Or “wide golden sashes,” but these would not be diagonal, as some modern sashes are, but horizontal. The Greek term can refer to a wide band of cloth or leather worn on the outside of one’s clothing (L&N 6.178).

769 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

770 tn Or “anger.”

771 tn Grk “power, and no one.” A new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “thus” to indicate the implied result of the temple being filled with smoke.

772 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

773 tn Or “anger.” Here τοῦ θυμοῦ (tou qumou) has been translated as a genitive of content.

774 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the directions given by the voice from the temple.

775 tn Grk “the first”; the referent (the first angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

776 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

777 tn Or “ulcerated sores”; the term in the Greek text is singular but is probably best understood as a collective singular.

778 tn Grk ‘the men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

779 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “next” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

780 tn Grk “the second”; the referent (the second angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

781 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

782 tn Grk “the third”; the referent (the third angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

783 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the somewhat parenthetical nature of the remarks that follow.

784 tn Or “righteous,” although the context favors justice as the theme.

785 tn Or “because you have judged these things.” The pronoun ταῦτα (tauta) is neuter gender.

786 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate that this judgment is the result of what these wicked people did to the saints and prophets.

787 tn Grk “They are worthy”; i.e., of this kind of punishment. By extension, “they got what they deserve.”

788 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

789 tn Grk “the altar saying.”

790 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

791 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

792 tn Grk “the fourth”; the referent (the fourth angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

793 tn Grk “men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

794 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “thus” to indicate the implied result of the bowl poured on the sun.

795 tn Grk “men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

796 tn On this phrase BDAG 536 s.v. καῦμα states, “burning, heat Rv 7:16καυματίζεσθαι κ. μέγα be burned with a scorching heat 16:9.”

797 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

798 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

799 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

800 tn Grk “the fifth”; the referent (the fifth angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

801 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so that” to indicate the implied result of the fifth bowl being poured out.

802 tn Grk “his kingdom became dark.”

803 tn Grk “men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

804 tn On this term BDAG 620 s.v. μασάομαι states, “bite w. acc. τὰς γλώσσας bite their tongues Rv 16:10.”

805 tn The preposition ἐκ (ek) has been translated here and twice in the following verse with a causal sense.

806 tn Grk “pains” (the same term in Greek [πόνος, ponos] as the last word in v. 11, here translated “sufferings” because it is plural). BDAG 852 s.v. 2 states, “ἐκ τοῦ π. in painRv 16:10; pl. (Gen 41:51; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 146; Test. Jud. 18:4) ἐκ τῶν π. …because of their sufferings vs. 11.”

807 tn Or “ulcerated sores” (see 16:2).

808 tn Grk “and they did not repent.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but nevertheless” to express the contrast here.

809 tn Grk “they did not repent” The addition of “still refused” reflects the hardness of people’s hearts in the context.

810 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

811 tn Grk “the sixth”; the referent (the sixth angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

812 tn Grk “and its water was dried up.” Here the passive construction has been translated as an active one.

813 tn Grk “in order that the way might be prepared.” Here the passive construction has been translated as an active one.

814 tn Grk “from the rising of the sun.” BDAG 74 s.v. ἀνατολή 2.a takes this as a geographical direction: “ἀπὸ ἀ. ἡλίουfrom the east Rv 7:2; 16:12; simply ἀπὸ ἀ. …21:13.”

815 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

816 sn According to the next verse, these three unclean spirits are spirits of demons.

817 tn BDAG 699 s.v. οἰκουμένη 1 states, “the inhabited earth, the worldὅλη ἡ οἰκ. the whole inhabited earthMt 24:14; Ac 11:28; Rv 3:10; 16:14.”

818 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

819 tn Grk “and keeps.” BDAG 1002 s.v. τηρέω 2.c states “of holding on to someth. so as not to give it up or lose it…τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ Rv 16:15 (or else he will have to go naked).”

820 tn On the translation of ἀσχημοσύνη (aschmosunh) as “shameful condition” see L&N 25.202. The indefinite third person plural (“and they see”) has been translated as a passive here.

821 sn These lines are parenthetical, forming an aside to the narrative. The speaker here is the Lord Jesus Christ himself rather than the narrator. Many interpreters have seen this verse as so abrupt that it could not be an original part of the work, but the author has used such asides before (1:7; 14:13) and the suddenness here (on the eve of Armageddon) is completely parallel to Jesus’ warning in Mark 13:15-16 and parallels.

822 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the resumption and conclusion of the remarks about the pouring out of the sixth bowl.

823 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the demonic spirits, v. 14) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

824 tn Grk “gathered them”; the referent (the kings and [implied] their armies, v. 14) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

825 tc There are many variations in the spelling of this name among the Greek mss, although ῾Αρμαγεδών (&armagedwn) has the best support. The usual English spelling is Armageddon, used in the translation.

tn Or “Harmagedon” (a literal transliteration of the Greek), or “Har-Magedon” (NASB), meaning “the Mount of Magedon” in Hebrew.

826 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “finally” to indicate the conclusion of the seven bowl judgments.

827 tn Grk “the seventh”; the referent (the seventh angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

828 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

829 tn Or “sounds,” “voices.” It is not entirely clear what this refers to. BDAG 1071 s.v. φωνή 1 states, “In Rv we have ἀστραπαὶ καὶ φωναὶ καὶ βρονταί (cp. Ex 19:16) 4:5; 8:5; 11:19; 16:18 (are certain other sounds in nature thought of here in addition to thunder, as e.g. the roar of the storm?…).”

830 tn The singular ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used generically here to refer to the human race.

831 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

832 tn Or “of the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

833 tn Grk “fell.”

834 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Babylon’s misdeeds (see Rev 14:8).

835 tn Grk “the cup of the wine of the anger of the wrath of him.” The concatenation of four genitives has been rendered somewhat differently by various translations (see the note on the word “wrath”).

836 tn Following BDAG 461 s.v. θυμός 2, the combination of the genitives of θυμός (qumo") and ὀργή (orgh) in Rev 16:19 and 19:15 are taken to be a strengthening of the thought as in the OT and Qumran literature (Exod 32:12; Jer 32:37; Lam 2:3; CD 10:9). Thus in Rev 14:8 (to which the present passage alludes) and 18:3 there is irony: The wine of immoral behavior with which Babylon makes the nations drunk becomes the wine of God’s wrath for her.

837 tn Grk “And every.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

838 tn Or “vanished.”

839 sn Every island fled away and no mountains could be found. Major geographical and topographical changes will accompany the Day of the Lord.

840 tn Here BDAG 988 s.v. ταλαντιαῖος states, “weighing a talentχάλαζα μεγάλη ὡς ταλαντιαία a severe hailstorm with hailstones weighing a talent (the talent=125 librae, or Roman pounds of c. 343 gr. or 12 ounces each) (weighing about a hundred pounds NRSV) Rv 16:21.” This means each hailstone would weigh just under 100 pounds or 40 kilograms.

841 tn Or “the sky.” Due to the apocalyptic nature of this book, it is probably best to leave the translation as “from heaven,” since God is ultimately the source of the judgment.

842 tn Grk “on men,” but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used here in a generic sense to refer to people in general (the hailstones did not single out adult males, but would have also fallen on women and children).

843 tn Grk “the men”; for stylistic reasons the pronoun “they” is used here.

844 tn Grk “the plague of it.”

845 tn Grk “since the plague of it was exceedingly great.”

846 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

847 tn Grk “with me.” The translation “with me” implies that John was engaged in a dialogue with the one speaking to him (e.g., Jesus or an angel) when in reality it was a one-sided conversation, with John doing all the listening. For this reason, μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ (met emou, “with me”) was translated as “to me.”

848 tn Here one Greek term, κρίμα (krima), has been translated by the two English terms “condemnation” and “punishment.” See BDAG 567 s.v. 4.b, “mostly in an unfavorable sense, of the condemnatory verdict and sometimes the subsequent punishment itself 2 Pt 2:3; Jd 4…τὸ κ. τῆς πόρνης the condemnation and punishment of the prostitute Rv 17:1.”

849 tn This is the same word translated “sexual immorality” earlier in the verse, but here the qualifier “sexual” has not been repeated for stylistic reasons.

850 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s invitation to witness the fate of the prostitute.

851 tn Or “in the spirit.” “Spirit” could refer either to the Holy Spirit or the human spirit, but in either case John was in “a state of spiritual exaltation best described as a trance” (R. H. Mounce, Revelation [NICNT], 75).

852 tn Or “desert.”

853 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied for stylistic reasons.

854 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the detailed description of the woman, which is somewhat parenthetical in nature.

855 tn The word “clothing” is supplied to clarify that the words “purple” and “scarlet” refer to cloth or garments rather than colors.

856 tn Grk “gilded with gold” (an instance of semantic reinforcement, see L&N 49.29).

857 tn Grk “pearls, having in her hand.” Due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

858 tc Several mss (including 1611 1854 2053 ÏK pc) read “sexual immorality on/of the earth” (πορνείας τῆς γῆς, porneia" th" gh") instead of “her sexual immorality.” Other mss (א syh** [co]) read “her sexual immorality and the earth’s” (πορνείας αὐτῆς καὶ τῆς γῆς, porneia" aujth" kai th" gh"). The translation is a rendering of πορνείας αὐτῆς, found in {A 1006 2344 al}. It seems that the first reading “sexuality immorality on/of the earth” was a scribal mistake in which letters may have been confused (auths would have been read as thsghs), or was perhaps influenced by the presence of “of the world” (τῆς γῆς) at the end of v. 5. The original wording seems to be “her sexual immorality”; codex א has conflated the two readings.

859 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

860 tn Some translations consider the word μυστήριον (musthrion, “mystery”) a part of the name written (“Mystery Babylon the Great,” so KJV, NIV), but the gender of both ὄνομα (onoma, “name”) and μυστήριον are neuter, while the gender of “Babylon” is feminine. This strongly suggests that μυστήριον should be understood as an appositive to ὄνομα (“a name, i.e., a mystery”).

861 tn Or “of the witnesses to Jesus.” Here the genitive ᾿Ιησοῦ (Ihsou) is taken as an objective genitive; Jesus is the object of their testimony.

862 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

863 tn Grk “I marveled a great marvel” (an idiom for great astonishment).

864 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

865 tn Grk “I will tell you,” but since what follows is the angel’s interpretation of the vision, “interpret for you” is the preferred translation here.

866 tn On this term BDAG 2 s.v. ἄβυσσος 2 states, “netherworld, abyss, esp. the abode of the dead Ro 10:7 (Ps 106:26) and of demons Lk 8:31; dungeon where the devil is kept Rv 20:3; abode of the θηρίον, the Antichrist 11:7; 17:8; of ᾿Αβαδδών (q.v.), the angel of the underworld 9:11φρέαρ τῆς ἀ. 9:1f; capable of being sealed 9:1; 20:1, 3.”

867 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

868 tn Some translations take the ὅτι (Joti) here as causal: “because he was, and is not, but is to come” (so NIV, NRSV), but it is much more likely that the subject of the ὅτι clause has been assimilated into the main clause: “when they see the beast, that he was…” = “when they see that the beast was” (so BDAG 732 s.v. ὅτι 1.f, where Rev 17:8 is listed).

869 tn Grk “Here is the mind that has wisdom.”

870 tn It is important to note that the height of “mountains” versus “hills” or other topographical terms is somewhat relative. In terms of Palestinian topography, Mount Tabor (traditionally regarded as the mount of transfiguration) is some 1,800 ft (550 m) above sea level, while the Mount of Olives is only some 100 ft (30 m) higher than Jerusalem.

871 tn That is, one currently reigns.

872 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

873 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

874 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

875 tn The word “kings” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to clarify the referent.

876 tn See BDAG 636 s.v. μετά A.2.a.α.

877 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

878 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

879 tn Grk “and multitudes,” but καί (kai) has not been translated here and before the following term since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

880 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

881 tn A new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

882 tn The final clause could also be turned into an adverbial clause of means: “They will consume her flesh by burning her with fire.”

883 tn Grk “hearts.”

884 tn Or “his intent.”

885 tn The infinitive ποιῆσαι (poihsai) was translated here as giving the logical means by which God’s purpose was carried out.

886 tn On this term BDAG 203 s.v. γνώμη 4 states, “declaration, decision, resolution…of God Rv 17:17.”

887 tn For this translation see BDAG 168 s.v. βασιλεία 1.a, “kingship, royal power, royal rule.

888 tn Or “completed.”

889 tn Grk “And.” Because this remark is somewhat resumptive in nature, “as for” is used in the translation.



TIP #27: Get rid of popup ... just cross over its boundary. [ALL]
created in 0.45 seconds
powered by bible.org