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Revelation 16:12-16

Context

16:12 Then 1  the sixth angel 2  poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates and dried up its water 3  to prepare the way 4  for the kings from the east. 5  16:13 Then 6  I saw three unclean spirits 7  that looked like frogs coming out of the mouth of the dragon, out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet. 16:14 For they are the spirits of the demons performing signs who go out to the kings of the earth 8  to bring them together for the battle that will take place on the great day of God, the All-Powerful. 9 

16:15 (Look! I will come like a thief!

Blessed is the one who stays alert and does not lose 10  his clothes so that he will not have to walk around naked and his shameful condition 11  be seen.) 12 

16:16 Now 13  the spirits 14  gathered the kings and their armies 15  to the place that is called Armageddon 16  in Hebrew.

1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

2 tn Grk “the sixth”; the referent (the sixth angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

3 tn Grk “and its water was dried up.” Here the passive construction has been translated as an active one.

4 tn Grk “in order that the way might be prepared.” Here the passive construction has been translated as an active one.

5 tn Grk “from the rising of the sun.” BDAG 74 s.v. ἀνατολή 2.a takes this as a geographical direction: “ἀπὸ ἀ. ἡλίουfrom the east Rv 7:2; 16:12; simply ἀπὸ ἀ. …21:13.”

6 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

7 sn According to the next verse, these three unclean spirits are spirits of demons.

8 tn BDAG 699 s.v. οἰκουμένη 1 states, “the inhabited earth, the worldὅλη ἡ οἰκ. the whole inhabited earthMt 24:14; Ac 11:28; Rv 3:10; 16:14.”

9 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

10 tn Grk “and keeps.” BDAG 1002 s.v. τηρέω 2.c states “of holding on to someth. so as not to give it up or lose it…τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ Rv 16:15 (or else he will have to go naked).”

11 tn On the translation of ἀσχημοσύνη (aschmosunh) as “shameful condition” see L&N 25.202. The indefinite third person plural (“and they see”) has been translated as a passive here.

12 sn These lines are parenthetical, forming an aside to the narrative. The speaker here is the Lord Jesus Christ himself rather than the narrator. Many interpreters have seen this verse as so abrupt that it could not be an original part of the work, but the author has used such asides before (1:7; 14:13) and the suddenness here (on the eve of Armageddon) is completely parallel to Jesus’ warning in Mark 13:15-16 and parallels.

13 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the resumption and conclusion of the remarks about the pouring out of the sixth bowl.

14 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the demonic spirits, v. 14) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

15 tn Grk “gathered them”; the referent (the kings and [implied] their armies, v. 14) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

16 tc There are many variations in the spelling of this name among the Greek mss, although ῾Αρμαγεδών (&armagedwn) has the best support. The usual English spelling is Armageddon, used in the translation.

tn Or “Harmagedon” (a literal transliteration of the Greek), or “Har-Magedon” (NASB), meaning “the Mount of Magedon” in Hebrew.



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