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Revelation 16:10-13

Context

16:10 Then 1  the fifth angel 2  poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast so that 3  darkness covered his kingdom, 4  and people 5  began to bite 6  their tongues because 7  of their pain. 16:11 They blasphemed the God of heaven because of their sufferings 8  and because of their sores, 9  but nevertheless 10  they still refused to repent 11  of their deeds.

16:12 Then 12  the sixth angel 13  poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates and dried up its water 14  to prepare the way 15  for the kings from the east. 16  16:13 Then 17  I saw three unclean spirits 18  that looked like frogs coming out of the mouth of the dragon, out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet.

1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

2 tn Grk “the fifth”; the referent (the fifth angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

3 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so that” to indicate the implied result of the fifth bowl being poured out.

4 tn Grk “his kingdom became dark.”

5 tn Grk “men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

6 tn On this term BDAG 620 s.v. μασάομαι states, “bite w. acc. τὰς γλώσσας bite their tongues Rv 16:10.”

7 tn The preposition ἐκ (ek) has been translated here and twice in the following verse with a causal sense.

8 tn Grk “pains” (the same term in Greek [πόνος, ponos] as the last word in v. 11, here translated “sufferings” because it is plural). BDAG 852 s.v. 2 states, “ἐκ τοῦ π. in painRv 16:10; pl. (Gen 41:51; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 146; Test. Jud. 18:4) ἐκ τῶν π. …because of their sufferings vs. 11.”

9 tn Or “ulcerated sores” (see 16:2).

10 tn Grk “and they did not repent.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but nevertheless” to express the contrast here.

11 tn Grk “they did not repent” The addition of “still refused” reflects the hardness of people’s hearts in the context.

12 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

13 tn Grk “the sixth”; the referent (the sixth angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

14 tn Grk “and its water was dried up.” Here the passive construction has been translated as an active one.

15 tn Grk “in order that the way might be prepared.” Here the passive construction has been translated as an active one.

16 tn Grk “from the rising of the sun.” BDAG 74 s.v. ἀνατολή 2.a takes this as a geographical direction: “ἀπὸ ἀ. ἡλίουfrom the east Rv 7:2; 16:12; simply ἀπὸ ἀ. …21:13.”

17 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

18 sn According to the next verse, these three unclean spirits are spirits of demons.



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