16:19 The 9 great city was split into three parts and the cities of the nations 10 collapsed. 11 So 12 Babylon the great was remembered before God, and was given the cup 13 filled with the wine made of God’s furious wrath. 14
17:5 On 15 her forehead was written a name, a mystery: 16 “Babylon the Great, the Mother of prostitutes and of the detestable things of the earth.”
18:2 He 17 shouted with a powerful voice:
“Fallen, fallen, is Babylon the great!
She 18 has become a lair for demons,
a haunt 19 for every unclean spirit,
a haunt for every unclean bird,
a haunt for every unclean and detested beast. 20
1 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
2 tc There are several different variants comprising a textual problem involving “second” (δεύτερος, deuteros). First, several
3 tn Grk “And another angel, a second.”
4 tn The words “the first” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
7 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).
8 tn Grk “of the wine of the passion of the sexual immorality of her.” Here τῆς πορνείας (th" porneia") has been translated as an attributive genitive. In an ironic twist of fate, God will make Babylon drink her own mixture, but it will become the wine of his wrath in retribution for her immoral deeds (see the note on the word “wrath” in 16:19).
9 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
10 tn Or “of the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).
11 tn Grk “fell.”
13 tn Grk “the cup of the wine of the anger of the wrath of him.” The concatenation of four genitives has been rendered somewhat differently by various translations (see the note on the word “wrath”).
14 tn Following BDAG 461 s.v. θυμός 2, the combination of the genitives of θυμός (qumo") and ὀργή (orgh) in Rev 16:19 and 19:15 are taken to be a strengthening of the thought as in the OT and Qumran literature (Exod 32:12; Jer 32:37; Lam 2:3; CD 10:9). Thus in Rev 14:8 (to which the present passage alludes) and 18:3 there is irony: The wine of immoral behavior with which Babylon makes the nations drunk becomes the wine of God’s wrath for her.
15 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
16 tn Some translations consider the word μυστήριον (musthrion, “mystery”) a part of the name written (“Mystery Babylon the Great,” so KJV, NIV), but the gender of both ὄνομα (onoma, “name”) and μυστήριον are neuter, while the gender of “Babylon” is feminine. This strongly suggests that μυστήριον should be understood as an appositive to ὄνομα (“a name, i.e., a mystery”).
17 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style
18 tn Or “It” (the subject is embedded in the verb in Greek; the verb only indicates that it is third person). Since the city has been personified as the great prostitute, the feminine pronoun was used in the translation.
19 tn Here BDAG 1067 s.v. φυλακή 3 states, “a place where guarding is done, prison…Of the nether world or its place of punishment (πνεῦμα 2 and 4c) 1 Pt 3:19 (BReicke, The Disobedient Spirits and Christian Baptism ’46, 116f). It is in a φ. in the latter sense that Satan will be rendered harmless during the millennium Rv 20:7. The fallen city of Babylon becomes a φυλακή haunt for all kinds of unclean spirits and birds 18:2ab.”
20 tc There are several problems in this verse. It seems that according to the ms evidence the first two phrases (i.e., “and a haunt for every unclean spirit, and a haunt for every unclean bird” [καὶ φυλακὴ παντὸς πνεύματος ἀκαθάρτου καὶ φυλακὴ παντὸς ὀρνέου ἀκαθάρτου, kai fulakh panto" pneumato" akaqartou kai fulakh panto" orneou akaqartou]) are to be regarded as authentic, though there are some ms discrepancies. The similar beginnings (καὶ φυλακὴ παντός) and endings (ἀκαθάρτου) of each phrase would easily account for some