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Revelation 14:14-19

Context

14:14 Then 1  I looked, and a white cloud appeared, 2  and seated on the cloud was one like a son of man! 3  He had 4  a golden crown on his head and a sharp sickle in his hand. 14:15 Then 5  another angel came out of the temple, shouting in a loud voice to the one seated on the cloud, “Use 6  your sickle and start to reap, 7  because the time to reap has come, since the earth’s harvest is ripe!” 14:16 So 8  the one seated on the cloud swung his sickle over the earth, and the earth was reaped.

14:17 Then 9  another angel came out of the temple in heaven, and he too had a sharp sickle. 14:18 Another 10  angel, who was in charge of 11  the fire, came from the altar and called in a loud voice to the angel 12  who had the sharp sickle, “Use 13  your sharp sickle and gather 14  the clusters of grapes 15  off the vine of the earth, 16  because its grapes 17  are now ripe.” 18  14:19 So 19  the angel swung his sickle over the earth and gathered the grapes from the vineyard 20  of the earth and tossed them into the great 21  winepress of the wrath of God.

1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

2 tn Grk “and behold, a white cloud.”

3 tn This phrase constitutes an allusion to Dan 7:13. Concerning υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου (Juio" tou anqrwpou), BDAG 1026 s.v. υἱός 2.d.γ says: “ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου lit. ‘the son of the man’…‘the human being, the human one, the man’…On Israelite thought contemporary w. Jesus and alleged knowledge of a heavenly being looked upon as a ‘Son of Man’ or ‘Man’, who exercises Messianic functions such as judging the world (metaph., pictorial passages in En 46-48; 4 Esdr 13:3, 51f)…Outside the gospels: Ac 7:56Rv 1:13; 14:14 (both after Da 7:13…).” The term “son” here in this expression is anarthrous and as such lacks specificity. Some commentators and translations take the expression as an allusion to Daniel 7:13 and not to “the son of man” found in gospel traditions (e.g., Mark 8:31; 9:12; cf. D. E. Aune, Revelation [WBC], 2:800-801; cf. also NIV). Other commentators and versions, however, take the phrase “son of man” as definite, involving allusions to Dan 7:13 and “the son of man” gospel traditions (see G. K. Beale, Revelation [NIGTC], 771-72; NRSV).

4 tn Grk “like a son of man, having.” In the Greek text this is a continuation of the previous sentence.

5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

6 tn Grk “Send out.”

7 tn The aorist θέρισον (qerison) has been translated ingressively.

8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s directions.

9 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

10 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

11 tn Grk “who had authority over.” This appears to be the angel who tended the fire on the altar.

12 tn Grk “to the one having the sharp sickle”; the referent (the angel in v. 17) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

13 tn Grk “Send.”

14 tn On this term BDAG 1018 s.v. τρυγάω states: “‘gather in’ ripe fruit, esp. harvest (grapes) w. acc. of the fruit (POslo. 21, 13 [71 ad]; Jos., Ant. 4, 227) Lk 6:44; Rv 14:18 (in imagery, as in the foll. places)…W. acc. of that which bears the fruit gather the fruit of the vine…or the vineyard (s. ἄμπελος a) Rv 14:19.”

15 tn On this term BDAG 181 s.v. βότρυς states, “bunch of grapes Rv 14:18…The word is also found in the Phrygian Papias of Hierapolis, in a passage in which he speaks of the enormous size of the grapes in the new aeon (in the Lat. transl. in Irenaeus 5, 33, 2f.): dena millia botruum Papias (1:2). On this see Stephan. Byz. s.v. Εὐκαρπία: Metrophanes says that in the district of Εὐκαρπία in Phrygia Minor the grapes were said to be so large that one bunch of them caused a wagon to break down in the middle.”

16 tn The genitive τῆς γῆς (ths ghs), taken symbolically, could be considered a genitive of apposition.

17 tn Or perhaps, “its bunches of grapes” (a different Greek word from the previous clause). L&N 3.38 states, “the fruit of grapevines (see 3.27) – ‘grape, bunch of grapes.’ τρύγησον τοὺς βότρυας τῆς ἀμπέλου τῆς γῆς, ὅτι ἤκμασαν αἱ σταφυλαὶ αὐτῆς ‘cut the grapes from the vineyard of the earth because its grapes are ripe’ Re 14:18. Some scholars have contended that βότρυς means primarily a bunch of grapes, while σταφυλή designates individual grapes. In Re 14:18 this difference might seem plausible, but there is scarcely any evidence for such a distinction, since both words may signify grapes as well as bunches of grapes.”

18 tn On the use of ἥκμασαν (hkmasan) BDAG 36 s.v. ἀκμάζω states, “to bloom…of grapes…Rv 14:18.”

19 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s directions.

20 tn Or “vine.” BDAG 54 s.v. ἄμπελος a states, “τρυγᾶν τοὺς βότρυας τῆς ἀ. τῆς γῆς to harvest the grapes fr. the vine of the earth (i.e. fr. the earth, symbol. repr. as a grapevine) Rv 14:18f; but may be taking on the meaning of ἀμπελών, as oft. in pap., possibly PHib. 70b, 2 [III bc].” The latter alternative has been followed in the translation (ἀμπελών = “vineyard”).

21 tn Although the gender of μέγαν (megan, masc.) does not match the gender of ληνόν (lhnon, fem.) it has been taken to modify that word (as do most English translations).



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