“The kingdom of the world
has become the kingdom of our Lord
and of his Christ, 3
and he will reign for ever and ever.”
“We give you thanks, Lord God, the All-Powerful, 7
the one who is and who was,
because you have taken your great power
and begun to reign. 8
but 11 your wrath has come,
and the time has come for the dead to be judged,
and the time has come to give to your servants, 12
the prophets, their reward,
as well as to the saints
and to those who revere 13 your name, both small and great,
11:19 Then 16 the temple of God in heaven was opened and the ark of his covenant was visible within his temple. And there were flashes of lightning, roaring, 17 crashes of thunder, an earthquake, and a great hailstorm. 18
1 tn Grk “has passed.”
2 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.
3 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
4 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.
5 tn Grk “they fell down on their faces.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”
6 tn Grk “saying.”
8 tn The aorist verb ἐβασίλευσας (ebasileusa") has been translated ingressively.
9 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
10 tn Or “The Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).
11 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
13 tn Grk “who fear.”
14 tn The words “the time has come” do not occur except at the beginning of the verse; the phrase has been repeated for emphasis and contrast. The Greek has one finite verb (“has come”) with a compound subject (“your wrath,” “the time”), followed by three infinitive clauses (“to be judged,” “to give,” “to destroy”). The rhetorical power of the repetition of the finite verb in English thus emulates the rhetorical power of its lone instance in Greek.
15 tn Or “who deprave.” There is a possible wordplay here on two meanings for διαφθείρω (diafqeirw), with the first meaning “destroy” and the second meaning either “to ruin” or “to make morally corrupt.” See L&N 20.40.
16 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence on events within the vision.
17 tn Or “sounds,” “voices.” It is not entirely clear what this refers to. BDAG 1071 s.v. φωνή 1 states, “In Rv we have ἀστραπαὶ καὶ φωναὶ καὶ βρονταί (cp. Ex 19:16) 4:5; 8:5; 11:19; 16:18 (are certain other sounds in nature thought of here in addition to thunder, as e.g. the roar of the storm?…).”
18 tn Although BDAG 1075 s.v. χάλαζα gives the meaning “hail” here, it is not clear whether the adjective μεγάλη (megalh) refers to the intensity of the storm or the size of the individual hailstones, or both.