you drove out nations and transplanted it.
it took root, 3
and filled the land.
80:10 The mountains were covered by its shadow,
the highest cedars 4 by its branches.
and its shoots the Euphrates River. 6
so that all who pass by pluck its fruit? 8
the insects 10 of the field feed on it.
Look down from heaven and take notice!
Take care of this vine,
the shoot you made to grow! 13
They die because you are displeased with them. 15
to the one whom you raised up for yourself! 17
80:18 Then we will not turn away from you.
Revive us and we will pray to you! 18
2 tn Heb “you cleared away before it.”
3 tn Heb “and it took root [with] its roots.”
4 tn Heb “cedars of God.” The divine name אֵל (’al, “God”) is here used in an idiomatic manner to indicate the superlative.
5 tn Heb “to [the] sea.” The “sea” refers here to the Mediterranean Sea.
6 tn Heb “to [the] river.” The “river” is the Euphrates River in Mesopotamia. Israel expanded both to the west and to the east.
8 tn Heb “pluck it.”
9 tn The Hebrew verb כִּרְסֵם (kirsem, “to eat away; to ruin”) occurs only here in the OT.
10 tn The precise referent of the Hebrew word translated “insects,” which occurs only here and in Ps 50:11, is uncertain. Aramaic, Arabic, and Akkadian cognates refer to insects, such as locusts or crickets.
11 tn Heb “O God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי before צְבָאוֹת (tsÿva’ot, “hosts”; see Ps 89:9), but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvah ’elohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת (tsÿva’ot) in Pss 59:5 and 84:8 as well. See also vv. 4, 7 for a similar construction.
12 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here in the OT. HALOT 483 s.v. III כֵּן emends the form to כַּנָּהּ (kannah, “its shoot”).
13 tn Heb “and upon a son you strengthened for yourself.” In this context, where the extended metaphor of the vine dominates, בֵּן (ben, “son”) probably refers to the shoots that grow from the vine. Cf. Gen 49:22.
14 tn Heb “burned with fire.”
15 tn Heb “because of the rebuke of your face they perish.”
16 tn Heb “may your hand be upon the man of your right hand.” The referent of the otherwise unattested phrase “man of your right hand,” is unclear. It may refer to the nation collectively as a man. (See the note on the word “yourself” in v. 17b.)
17 tn Heb “upon the son of man you strengthened for yourself.” In its only other use in the Book of Psalms, the phrase “son of man” refers to the human race in general (see Ps 8:4). Here the phrase may refer to the nation collectively as a man. Note the use of the statement “you strengthened for yourself” both here and in v. 15, where the “son” (i.e., the branch of the vine) refers to Israel.
18 tn Heb “and in your name we will call.”
19 tn Heb “O
21 tn Heb “cause your face to shine in order that we may be delivered.” After the imperative, the cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose/result.